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Saïd Qasmi, Christophe Cassou, and Julien Boé

predictability over land is somewhat paradoxical given the tight links that exist in observations between AMV and the decadal variations in summertime temperature and precipitation over the North American continent ( Sutton and Hodson 2005 ; Ruprich-Robert et al. 2017 ), over Europe ( Sutton and Dong 2012 ; O’Reilly et al. 2017 ), and over Africa for Sahel rainfall ( Zhang and Delworth 2006 ). Note that greater predictive model performance is found for specific decadal shifts (e.g., the mid-1990 warming of

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Matti Kämäräinen, Petteri Uotila, Alexey Yu. Karpechko, Otto Hyvärinen, Ilari Lehtonen, and Jouni Räisänen

1. Introduction Skillful seasonal forecasts can help various weather-sensitive sectors to anticipate weather-related risks ( Clark et al. 2017 ; Tauser and Cajka 2014 ; De Cian et al. 2013 ). For that reason, the predictability of temperature, precipitation, and, for example, the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in monthly and seasonal time scales has been an active research topic in Europe. Several potential sources of predictability have been reported, including sea surface

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Yang Liu and Shengping He

winter 2009/10 saw snowy and cold climate over most regions of the Northern Hemisphere, coinciding with the negative phase of the NAO ( Orsolini et al. 2016 ). Even though the NAO is evident throughout the year, the climate anomalies associated with NAO are most dominant during boreal winter ( Barnston and Livezey 1987 ; Hurrell et al. 2003 ). Changes in the NAO produce pronounced climate variations in the surrounding continental areas of North America, Europe, and North Africa and also in remote

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Mateusz Taszarek, Harold E. Brooks, Bartosz Czernecki, Piotr Szuster, and Krzysztof Fortuniak

1. Introduction Around 9000 severe thunderstorm incidents causing 100 fatalities and 500 injuries are reported each year in Europe according to the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD; Dotzek et al. 2009 ). Unfortunately, geographical bias toward densely populated areas and errors in the databases make it difficult to determine the true coverage of severe thunderstorms ( Groenemeijer et al. 2017 ). Lightning is detected more objectively ( Betz et al. 2009 ; Pohjola and Mäkelä 2013

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Zhuozhuo Lü, Fei Li, Yvan J. Orsolini, Yongqi Gao, and Shengping He

1. Introduction In late February of 2018, unusually cold snowy weather events occurred across Europe. Quite a few countries suffered from their worst winter ever: Belgium experienced its coldest day since 1901, and minimum temperatures of below −40°C were observed in many places in Sweden ( Anadolu Agency 2018 ). Large-scale snowfall happened over southern Europe and even over the Mediterranean ( Lapin 2018 ). The extensive cold spell caused severe destruction of life and property, resulting in

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Omar Bellprat, Sven Kotlarski, Daniel Lüthi, Ramón De Elía, Anne Frigon, René Laprise, and Christoph Schär

particular over Europe (PRUDENCE and ENSEMBLES; Christensen and Christensen 2007 ; van der Linden and Mitchell 2009 ), South America [Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies (CLARIS; Menéndez et al. 2010 )], the United States [Project to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (PIRCS; Takle et al. 1999 )], North America (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2012 ), the Arctic [Arctic Regional Climate Model Intercomparison (ARCMIP; Curry and Lynch 2002 )], Asia [Regional Climate Model Intercomparison

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M. Breil, D. Rechid, E. L. Davin, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, E. Katragkou, R. M. Cardoso, P. Hoffmann, L. L. Jach, P. M. M. Soares, G. Sofiadis, S. Strada, G. Strandberg, M. H. Tölle, and K. Warrach-Sagi

to changes in the forest cover was found in summer ( de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ; Kumar et al. 2013 ; Lejeune et al. 2017 ; Davin et al. 2020 ). Some models show warmer climate conditions, while others indicate colder conditions, especially in the midlatitudes, such as North America and Europe. Additionally, recent studies show that the temperature response to re/afforestation depends on the fraction of needleleaf to broadleaf forest ( Naudts et al. 2016 ; Cherubini et al. 2018 ; Schwaab

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P. A. Mooney, F. J. Mulligan, and R. Fealy

skill of regional climate models in simulating the present climate is discussed in terms of biases and interannual variability. This approach was also adopted by Jacob et al. (2007) for evaluating the performance of the regional climate models used in the Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects (PRUDENCE) project. Their evaluation focused on the long-term mean climate and the interannual variability of near surface temperature and

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Christoph Marty, Anna-Maria Tilg, and Tobias Jonas

periods considered ( Skaugen et al. 2012 ). In Japan, SWE has only been measured since the beginning of the 1990s. Yamaguchi et al. (2011) did not observe a clear trend of the maximum of SWE but high interannual variations. In the Alps our knowledge of SWE changes is still strongly limited by the fact that measurements are sparse and data are hard to obtain from the different European countries. Rohrer et al. (1994) found no trend for SWE in the Swiss Alps for the period 1975–92. Bocchiola and

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G. van der Schrier, K. R. Briffa, P. D. Jones, and T. J. Osborn

departure from normal precipitation with a factor uniquely appropriate to that location, and affects the range of values of the self-calibrating PDSI. Similarly, the duration factors are determined using data from that location only, which influences the sensitivity of the index for changes in the moisture regime. The improved performance of the self-calibrating PDSI over the “original” PDSI is demonstrated in a European context in section 3 . The aim of this study is to present an initial analysis of

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