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George E. Bowker, Dale A. Gillette, Gilles Bergametti, Béatrice Marticorena, and David K. Heist

formation of coppice dunes that have grown to a height of up to 2 m in the time from 1900 to the present ( Gibbens et al. 1983 ). Understanding the airflow patterns and the resulting flux of sediment can enhance our understanding of desert sand movement and dust production. Furthermore, eolian sediment transport is important in redistributing plant nutrients, determining vegetation patterns, and contributing to the change in vegetation type ( Schlesinger et al. 1990 ; Herbel et al. 1994 ). The Jornada

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Wenhui Cui and Ting Fong May Chui

imbalance when the eddy covariance technique was applied over heterogeneous landscapes ( Foken et al. 2004 ; Foken 2008 ; Stoy et al. 2013 ). For instance, Kochendorfer and Paw U (2011) identified the role of atmospheric advection in the energy balance using a large array of eddy covariance systems. Higgins et al. (2013) introduced an analytical approach to explore the advection transport mechanism over a land–lake transition and calculated the lateral flux of water vapor in the atmosphere. The

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Matthew H. Alford and Zhongxiang Zhao

’Asaro et al. 1995 ; Alford and Gregg 2001 ; Alford 2003a ) can propagate far from their sources. Construction of a depth-integrated internal-wave dissipation map D would therefore require an understanding of the divergence of the horizontal internal-wave energy flux F : (In this view, D includes wave–wave interactions and all other processes that transfer energy out of each frequency band; these are assumed to lead to motions that dissipate locally.) The propagating flux F and the processes

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Akio Kitoh, Tatsuo Motoi, and Shigenori Murakami

. Such paleo-ENSO simulation studies would give us good insight on the mechanism of ENSO variability and its changes, and clues for future ENSO changes by anthropogenic greenhouse gases increase. In this paper, ENSO characteristics of the latest version of the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) coupled GCM, which has also been used for the future climate projections, are investigated. There are two types of AOGCMs—those with or those without flux adjustment. Flux adjustments are employed to give

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Toru Kawai, Mohammad Kholid Ridwan, and Manabu Kanda

. Kawai et al. (2007) evaluated SUMM in the Comprehensive Outdoor Scale Model (COSMO) experiments. In these experiments, SUMM simulated the surface layer energy fluxes, surface temperature, and interior temperature of the reduced model fairly well under windy conditions, but underestimated sensible heat flux under calm conditions. Our objectives were to test the performance of SUMM using extensive data, including observed fluxes from different seasons and cities, to discuss errors, and to improve the

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J. R. Carpenter and M.-L. Timmermans

thinner density-stratified interfaces ( Fig. 1 ). We shall restrict ourselves to the diffusive regime, where the heat fluxes that result from DDC have been suggested to be an important contribution to the upper-ocean heat budget of the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Polyakov et al. 2012 ; Turner 2010 ). DDC is widespread throughout the Arctic Ocean, and many different staircase properties have been observed. For example, temperature interface thicknesses h have been reported to have a range of 0.05 ≤ h

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Sergey K. Gulev and Konstantin Belyaev

1. Introduction Surface turbulent air–sea fluxes are highly variable over all time scales. Long-term global surface flux time series are available from Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data, satellite observations, and reanalyses. Compared to the monthly VOS flux climatologies of Josey et al. (1999) and Grist and Josey (2003) , the present-day VOS-based products (e.g., Berry and Kent 2009 ) provide daily surface fluxes. Daily surface turbulent fluxes for the period from 1985 onward are also

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Fabrice Veron, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Lenain

1. Introduction The coupled air–sea boundary layers play an important role in the fluxes of momentum, heat, and mass between the atmosphere and the ocean. These exchanges are crucial for the evolution of weather and climate, providing important boundary conditions for both the atmosphere and the oceans. The complex dynamics of this coupled system govern the multiple air–sea fluxes, and as a consequence, the region directly influenced by surface waves in both boundary layers, the “surface wave

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H. Wang, R. T. Pinker, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer

1. Introduction Solar radiation incident at the earth’s surface determines the surface temperature and sensible and latent heat fluxes that govern most of the dynamical and hydrological processes ( Stephens and Greenwald 1991 ). It plays an essential role in controlling biological processes ( Running et al. 1999 ; Platt 1986 ) and is also needed for validating climate models ( Garratt et al. 1993 ; Wild et al. 1995 ; Wielicki et al. 2002 ). Clouds strongly interact with solar and terrestrial

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

global water cycle datasets from retrievals of relevant ocean and atmospheric parameters such as sea surface temperature, winds, air humidity, and precipitation. Such datasets are provided with a better spatiotemporal sampling in comparison with in situ observations. The microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum is ideally suited to retrieve precipitation and parameters useful to estimate latent heat flux and evaporation using a parameterization. At low microwave frequencies the emitted

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