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Mark DeMaria

1944 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 42, No. 18Linear Response of a Stratified .Tropical Atmosphere to Convective Forcing MARK DEMARIA*National Center for Atmospheric Research,~ Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 6 August 1984, in final form 8 May 1985)ABSTRACI' The three-dimensional response of the tropical atmosphere to an isolated heat source is investigated using aprimitive equation model linearized about a

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Christopher M. Strong, Fei-Fei Jin, and Michael Ghil

I SEPTEMBER 1993 STRONG ET AL. 2965Intraseasonal Variability in a Barotropic Model with Seasonal Forcing CHRISTOPHER M. STRONG, FEI-FEI JIN, * AND MICHAEL GHILClimate Dynamics Center, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California (Manuscript received 4 September

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Chih-Pei Chang

740 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES Vo~.u~aE33Forcing of Stratospheric Kelvin Waves by Tropospheric Heat Sources c~ra-P~ Cm~oDepartment of Meteorology, Na~al Postg~,aduate School, Monterey, Calif. 93940(Manuscript received 19 November 1975, in revised form 22 January 1976) The problem of scale-selection of Kelvin waves in the stratosphere by forcing from tropospheric heatingis analyzed using a

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Christopher M. Rozoff, James P. Kossin, Wayne H. Schubert, and Pedro J. Mulero

material rate of change of θ ρ , and F the frictional force per unit mass. It should be noted that (1) does not differ greatly from the PV equation for a dry atmosphere because the total density ρ is approximately equal to the dry air density and the virtual potential temperature θ ρ is approximately equal to the dry potential temperature. Based on (1) , we can say that there are three aspects to understanding the PV structure in hurricanes: (i) the advective aspects embodied in the D / Dt

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Li Dong and Stephen J. Colucci

1. Introduction In a previous study, Dong and Colucci (2005 , hereafter referred to as DC2005 ) identified two mechanisms that each acted alone, but rarely in concert, to force the weakening of midtropospheric westerlies associated with the analyzed Southern Hemisphere (SH) blocking cases. These mechanisms are the advection of a meridional gradient in potential vorticity (PV), referred to hereafter as the advection forcing, and the interaction between deformation and the PV gradients

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

others. However, in nature, convective clouds continuously interact with their surroundings through gravity waves and detrainment that modify their environment (e.g., Bretherton and Smolarkiewicz 1989 ). These interactions affect development of subsequent clouds. Thus, it is irrelevant what the first cloud does, but what matters is a response of an ensemble of clouds to realistic forcings averaged over many cloud realizations. (An exception to this argument might be when the first cloud causes a

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Junyan Xiong, Jun Yang, and Ji Nie

; for example, a doubling of atmospheric pressure produces a warming of ~7 K ( Charnay et al. 2013 ), and a pressure of 2.4 bar N 2 leads to surface warming of 9.7 K ( Wolf and Toon 2013 ). In this study, we mainly consider the scenario in which the atmospheric mass change is due to changes in the masses of radiatively inactive species (i.e., N 2 and O 2 ), thus excluding direct radiative forcing due to changes in the masses of radiatively active species. We explore the dependence of climate on

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Joonsuk Lee, Ping Yang, Andrew E. Dessler, Bo-Cai Gao, and Steven Platnick

convective blowoff, whereas the other half were associated with in situ formation. Because of the high frequency of occurrence of thin cirrus clouds, the effect of these clouds on the earth’s radiation budget can be significant. For example, these clouds, located high in the atmosphere, absorb longwave radiation but emit radiation at very low temperatures, producing local heating by a few degrees per day ( Jensen et al. 1996 ; McFarquhar et al. 2000 ) and net positive cloud radiative forcing on the

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Tiehan Zhou, Marvin A. Geller, and Wuyin Lin

velocity on a given pressure level is controlled exclusively by the distribution of the wave drag above that level. The downward control principle ( Haynes et al. 1991 ) is conventionally formulated as where is the residual mean vertical velocity, φ the latitude, z the log pressure height, ρ 0 the reference density profile, a the radius of the earth, D the wave forcing, the zonal mean angular momentum, the zonal mean zonal wind, Ω the angular velocity of the earth, and dz ′ the

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F. J. Robinson, S. C. Sherwood, D. Gerstle, C. Liu, and D. J. Kirshbaum

observational limitations. For example, storm development is very sensitive to environmental conditions that are hard to measure such as flow divergence, small-scale details at low levels (e.g., Wakimoto and Murphey 2008 ; Wilson and Schreiber 1986 ), or small variations in convective instability ( Lima and Wilson 2008 ). More fundamentally, chaotic turbulent phenomena can be expected to evolve differently over time even with nearly identical initial conditions and forcings. Finally, important storm

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