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W. G. Large and G. B. Crawford

response to midlatitude storms. Ofparticular interest are episodic mixed layer temperature cooling events whose characteristics are reviewed. Thedata include subsurface temperatures from drifting thermistor chains, mixed layer temperature and velocity frommixed layer drifters, conductivity-temperature-depth profiles, and radiation measurements from ships, and thesurface meteorological parameters produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Amethod for processing irregular

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Michael A. Spall and William R. Holland

(Carton 1984; Yoon and Philander 1982).In this way, waves coming into the boundary regionare strongly damped and the reflection or generationof spurious waves due to the presence of the boundaryis reduced. A drawback of this technique in the presentcontext is that it is very difficult to accurately parameterize the interaction with the surrounding fluid wheninformation is being advected into the region. The second method uses a local phase speed to determine ifthe variables should be specified as an

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Luc Lenain, Nicholas M. Statom, and W. Kendall Melville

used to estimate the surface wind speed, where the modeling of the ocean surface slope distribution is an essential component of the measurement technique. Surprisingly, in part because of the complexity and observational challenges characterizing surface slope distributions, only a few studies attempted to revisit these results since then. Several authors ( Hughes et al. 1977 ; Haimbach and Wu 1985 ; Hwang and Shemdin 1988 ; Shaw and Churnside 1997 ) used field observations from a refractive

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Allan R. Robinson, Michael A. Spall, and Nadia Pinardi

parameters. The Feature-Models and the implementation ofthe initialization technique is presented in section 3,followed in section 4 by the SST data and the descriptive-synoptic oceanography of the region (23 November to 19 December 1984). Section 5 describes the setof six numerical forecast experiments. Section 6 describes a set of physical sensitivity experiments and theEVA of ring production events. Section 7 presents thesummary and conclusions.2. Model equations, parameters, and methodology The

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Edward C. Monahan and IognáidÓ Muircheartaigh

by ordinary least squares fitting applied to the.combinedwhitecap data sets of Monahan (1971) and Toba and Chaen (1973), is W = 2.95 x 10-6 UTM. Theequivalent expression, obtained by the application of the technique of robust b/weight fitting, is W -- 3.84x 10-6 Ua.4L These expressions fit the combined data set better than any of the previously publishedequations.1. Introduction In the interpretation of the radiances in the variousshort-wavelength bands measured by such remotesensing systems

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Georgia D. Kalantzi, Christine Gommenginger, and Meric Srokosz

1. Introduction a. Wave energy balance equation The last 60 yrs have been a fecund period for wave modeling. The simple approximations of the wave conditions in a specific location gave way to the ability of time-extended forecasts on a global basis. However, this active progress seems to have slowed down during the last few years. Cavaleri (2006) comments that, no matter how satisfactory the model results of integrated parameters are, the comparison between model and measured spectra is

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J. Bjerknes

shows up in the increaseof exchange of angular momentum with the neighboring subtropical belt, whereby the subtropical westerlyjet strengthens in 1965 compared to 1964 all the way from the central Pacific to the eastern Mediterranean. The implications of the described ocean-atmosphere interaction for interannual climatic change, andthe possible forecasting thereof, are mentioned. It is stressed that climatic forecasting will call for extensiveadditional coordinated research by oceanographers and

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Steven L. Morey, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Enric Pallás Sanz, Joao Marcos Azevedo Correia De Souza, Kathleen Donohue, Paula Pérez-Brunius, Dmitry Dukhovskoy, Eric Chassignet, Bruce Cornuelle, Amy Bower, Heather Furey, Peter Hamilton, and Julio Candela

1. Introduction The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of present-day numerical model simulations of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) to simulate prominent features of the deep-layer circulation in the GoM as characterized by recent observational studies. With few exceptions, models of the GoM have primarily focused on simulating and forecasting the upper ocean circulation. Because assessment and verification efforts have also focused on the upper ocean, it is uncertain how accurately these

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K. Hasselmann, W. Sell, D. B. Ross, and P. Müller

a considerable savings in computer time overexisting spectral techniques and would be ideallyadapted to global wave forecasting, should the currentefforts to obtain surface wind and wave data from satellites ultimately lead to an operating global system. In conclusion, it may be mentioned that the energybalance relations (6.1), (6.2) on which the wave modelis based may also have useful applications in the interpretation of remote sensing data itself. Although techniques have been proposed for

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David Adamec and Russell L. Elsberry

predictions isstudied using data sensitivity techniques. First, the bulk model of Garwood is used to predict 17 years of'mixedlayer evolution and temperature structure at Ocean Station Papa using forcing derived from the 3 h atmosphericobservations. The model is then integrated again varying, one at a time, each atmospheric forcing variable bya Gaussian error whose spread is proportional to the standard deviations of that variable during late winteror midsummer. The results of those integrations are then

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