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Fisseha Berhane, Benjamin Zaitchik, and Hamada S. Badr

three of these indexing systems categorize the eastward propagation of the MJO into eight phases, with each phase corresponding to the geographical position of the active convective center of the MJO (see, e.g., WH04 ’s Fig. 7). Generally, the MJO lasts for about 6 days in each phase. In all three systems the phases correspond to periods when the center of MJO convective activity is over the Indian Ocean (phases 2 and 3), the Maritime Continent (phases 4 and 5), and the western Pacific Ocean

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Shiqiu Peng, Yu-Kun Qian, Rick Lumpkin, Ping Li, Dongxiao Wang, and Yan Du

. , 34 , 113 – 121 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0113:OOIOPS>2.0.CO;2 . Centurioni , L. R. , P. N. Niiler , and D.-K. Lee , 2009 : Near-surface circulation in the South China Sea during the winter monsoon . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L06605 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL037076 . Chelton , D. B. , R. A. deSzoeke , M. G. Schlax , K. E. Naggar , and N. Siwertz , 1998 : Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 28 , 433

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Clément Vic, Henrick Berger, Anne-Marie Tréguier, and Xavier Couvelard

parameters. The Coriolis parameter is calculated at the river mouth (6°S). The width and depth of the estuary are approximated as mean values out of the canyon area because of their spatial high variability. Based on the observation of Eisma et al. (1978) and Vangriesheim et al. (2009) , we estimate the depth h 1 of the freshwater surface layer ( Fig. 2 ) and the salinity difference Δ S between the inflow and the ambient shelf water. Depending on the location and naturally decreasing when going

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

leading meander crest along the shoreward side of the cold dome. Fig . 1. Observed SST of the Gulf Stream on 15 Mar 2013. Data from MODIS– Aqua . Black contours indicate the 200-, 600-, 1000-, and 2000-m isobaths. The warm Gulf Stream is deflected eastward at the Charleston Bump location. Large meanders form downstream of the bump with frontal eddies in between detraining water from the leading wave crest of the meander. The large frontal eddy visible at 32.5°N, 77.5°W has additional smaller

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

-mean SLP between 40° and 65°S based on observations from 12 weather stations. Following Yuan and Li (2008) , the PSA* index is defined as the weighted average of Z500 anomalies at three specific locations (referred to as Z1, Z2, and Z3) in the following way: PSA* = (Z1 + Z2 − Z3)/3. Here, Z1 is located at 50°S, 45°W, Z2 is at 45°S, 170°W, and Z3 is at 67.5°S, 120°W. Figure 1f shows the running correlation coefficient between the SAM* and PSA* indices. The correlation was relatively small in the 1960

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Hansi K. A. Singh, Cecilia M. Bitz, and Dargan M. W. Frierson

studies do isolate the effect of lowered orography on the climate system, they do so in climate states that are vastly different from that of the present day, particularly in terms of continental geography, ocean basin configurations, orbital parameters, and greenhouse gas concentrations. On the other hand, a few studies have considered the impact of AIS orography on global climate in atmosphere-only GCMs (AGCMs) without such confounding factors. Several of these found enhanced poleward energy

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Christopher C. Chapman, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, and Stephen R. Rintoul

. Note the logarithmic color scale. The approximate longitude of large topographic features is labeled. The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamics of storm tracks in the Southern Ocean and to develop a physical mechanism that explains their formation near large topographic features and the extension of high EKE farther downstream. a. A review of the dynamics of atmospheric storm tracks The persistence of high EKE in certain geographical regions presented a quandary to meteorologists

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Sarah N. Giddings, Stephen G. Monismith, Derek A. Fong, and Mark T. Stacey

) to 1 (spring). b. Instrumentation The observations we present were taken during the Office of Naval Research (ONR)-sponsored Coherent Structures in Rivers and Estuaries Experiment (COHSTREX) program (see, e.g., Giddings et al. 2011 ; Chickadel et al. 2009 ; Plant et al. 2009 ; Wang et al. 2009 , 2011 ). The present paper focuses on results from the in situ measurements conducted 5–26 July 2006. The instrument locations during the experiment discussed in this manuscript are mapped in Fig. 1c

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Per Pemberton, Johan Nilsson, Magnus Hieronymus, and H. E. Markus Meier

); transformations due to wind-induced near-surface mixing ( Nilsson 1996 ); abyssal transformations due to geothermal heating ( Emile-Geay and Madec 2008 ); studies of how mixed layer processes, eddies, and seasonality affect water mass transformations ( Marshall 1997 ; Marshall et al. 1999 ); and methods to map water mass transformation and formation back to geographical locations ( Brambilla et al. 2008 ; Maze et al. 2009 ). In studies of the Arctic Ocean, the ideas of Walin have mainly been used to compute

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Jens Grieger, Gregor C. Leckebusch, and Uwe Ulbrich

level pressure (MSLP) as the input. In the following, for the horizontal geographical plots, the mean of the three ensemble members is shown as results of the twentieth century and climate change signals. Statistical significance is calculated out of the mean and interannual variance of 60 years of the three members (3 × 20 yr). Figures of the flux convergence over Antarctica show each member separately. b. Hydrological cycle, moisture flux, and flux divergence Net precipitation can be computed by

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