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PETER J. WEBSTER

, at least implicitly, formany years. For example, Walker (1923), in a statisticalinvestigation of the Iong-t,erm variat,ion of the atmosphere,found that there were strong correlations between low-latitude station pairs for various physical parameters. Ageneral review of the many papers of Walker is given byMont,gomeq- (1940). Troup (1965) substantiat,ed thesecorrelations using longer periods of data. These correla-tions and their geographic location strongly suggest aform of atmospheric

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Peter J. Sousounis

southeastward to the mid-Atlantic coast and after the coldest air had left the region (cf. Fig. 2 ). Second, the location of the vortex was downwind from all of the lakes. Third, the scale of the vortex (e.g., 800 km wide at 850 mb) exceeded that of the largest individual Great Lake (e.g., Lake Superior ∼400 km). 2 Fourth, the MAV developed from smaller individual-lake-scale circulations, which suggests not only an aggregate development but a nonlinear transfer of energy from the meso- β scale to the

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PAUL T. SCHICKEDANZ and STANLEY A. CHANGNON JR.

detect significant results to 1) type I error, 2) typeI1 error, and 3) power of the test for various statistical tests and experimental designs. These nomograms were con-structed for various area sizes and geographical locations within the State.Results indicate that, for an Illinois experiment, insurance croploss data are the optimum hail measurement ifthe study area has more than 60 percent insurance coverage. The optimum experimental design is the random-historicaldesign in which all potential

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L. Cucurull, R. Li, and T. R. Peevey

nature run for July–August 2005 by the NOAA OSSE team, using geographical locations from July to August 2012 for the conventional and satellite data to enable simulation of satellite sensors launched after 2005. Realistic orbits were used to simulate COSMIC-2 soundings of refractivity with the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) constellations, and using the forward operator described in Cucurull (2010) . No systematic or random errors

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Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, and John R. Gyakum

( Hart and Evans 2001 ). The exact location of impact, ranging from southern Ontario to eastern Newfoundland, varies based on several factors (e.g., season, sea surface temperature, track, and synoptic situation). In 2005, the remnants of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were responsible for a significant percentage of the total monthly precipitation throughout a large portion of the St. Lawrence River Valley and eastern Canada. For example, 55% (73 mm) of the total August 2005 precipitation at Montreal

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Lance F. Bosart

-record monthly precipitation totals were posted in many northeastern locations in response to an active coastal zone stormtrack. Just prior to the end of January an abruptcirculation reversal .occurred which ended theanomalously wet regime and ushered in a period ofintense cold across the northeastern United Stateswith little attendant precipitation. The height of thecold air outbreak was reached 17-18 February asa massive 1050 mb anticyclone invaded easternNorth America. Following the Presidents

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John D. Horel

Wallace and Gutzler (1981, hereafter referred to as WG).Teleconnection patterns are regional-scale patternsresembling standing waves with geographically fixednodes and antinodes (or centers of action). Recentstudies by Opsteegh and Van den Dool (1980) andHoskins and Karoly (1981) provide a plausibledynamical explanation for the existence of such teleconnection patterns, based on Rossby wave propagation on a sphere. Although conceptually simple, the negative extrema method used by WG requires

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J. C. Fankhauser

VOLUME 116storms were selected where a significant portion (> 1h) of the mature (precipitating) stage was monitoredby cloud-base research aircraft while under surveillanceby the NCAR CP-2 10-cm radar. To qualify for precipitation efficiency analyses the storms also had to bereadily identifiable convective entities from the standpoint of their radar echo histories. Some of the storm'sphysical characteristics are illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2and are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. The storms varied

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Mei Han, Scott A. Braun, P. Ola G. Persson, and Jian-Wen Bao

three channels (19, 37, and 85 GHz) at (left) 0023, (middle) 0200, and (right) 0337 UTC 19 Feb 2001. Lines in the PCT panels outline the swath of the PR. Fig . 3. Geographic locations of the four domains used in the numerical simulation. Fig . 4. Domain 1 sea level pressure (thick contours, every 4 hPa), equivalent potential temperature (thin contours and shading, every 6 K), and wind barbs (full barb is 5 m s −1 ) at 975 hPa at (a) 2000 UTC 18 Feb, (b) 0200 UTC 19 Feb, and (c) 0800 UTC 19 Feb 2001

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K. I. Hodges and C. D. Thorncroft

further our understanding of the tropical African climate and the interannual variability in rainfall, it is necessary to consider the climatology and interannual variability of the mesoscale convective weather systems. Such a climatology does not exist and would be of use in developing general circulation model (GCM) parameterizations of convection. This paper provides such a climatology and relates it to the large-scale atmospheric parameters as well as to geographical features. The nature of the

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