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Fred M. Vukovich and William J. King

VOL. 19, NO. 7 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY JULY 1980A Theoretical Study of the St. Louis Heat Island: Comparisons Between Observed Data and Simulation Results on the Urban Heat Island Circulation FRED M. VUKOVICH AND WILLIAM J, KING Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709(Manuscript received 27 December 1978, in final form 11 November 1979)ABSTRACT A three

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Barry H. Lynn, Toby N. Carlson, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Richard Goldberg, Leonard Druyan, Jennifer Cox, Stuart Gaffin, Lily Parshall, and Kevin Civerolo

1. Introduction High-density metropolitan areas are known for their “urban heat island” (UHI) effect that raises nighttime temperatures in dense cityscapes in response to daytime heating of city surfaces. During sunny daytime hours, reduced evaporation of city surfaces coupled with the thermal properties of the city building and paving materials (e.g., Myrup 1969 ; Kunkel et al. 1996 ; Roberts et al. 2006 ; Kusaka and Kimura 2004 ) allows the cityscape to absorb heat, which is then emitted

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Robert D. Bornstein

AuGusx 1968 ROBERT D. BORNSTE1N 575Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York City~ ROBERT D. BORNSTEINNew York University(Manuscript received 19 October 1967, in revised form 8 May 1968)ABSTRACT Differences in the temperature fields through the lowest 700 m of the atmosphere in and around NewYork City during the hours near sunrise are analyzed. Data were

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Timothy J. Bauer

1. Introduction Urban heat island (UHI) effects have been a focus of scientific studies since the late 1960s ( Lowry 1967 ; Bornstein 1968 ; Oke 1987 ; Bowers et al. 1994 ). The increased skin and surface air temperatures due to the presence of tall structures that retain heat, large expanses of concrete and asphalt, lack of vegetation, and reduction in evapotranspiration can lead to heat conditions dangerous to urban residents ( Oleson et al. 2011 ; Hanna et al. 2011 ; Ryu and Baik 2012

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Sarah Chapman, Marcus Thatcher, Alvaro Salazar, James E. M. Watson, and Clive A. McAlpine

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) effect is a prominent example of how human modification of the land surface affects the local and regional climate ( Pielke et al. 2016 ). However, the geographic focus has been mainly on temperate cities rather than tropical or subtropical cities ( Arnfield 2003 ; Roth 2007 ; Karam et al. 2010 ; Stewart 2011 ). This is an important limitation because tropical and subtropical cities are growing faster than cities at higher latitudes ( Roth 2007

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Sachiho A. Adachi, Fujio Kimura, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Tomoshige Inoue, and Hiroaki Ueda

; JMA (2011) ]. The frequency of extremely hot days (daily Tmax ≧ 35°C) and nights (daily Tmin ≧ 25°C) is increasing remarkably ( JMA 2011 ). There is great concern over the effects of heat stress on inhabitants of the city because of the ramifications of both global warming associated with the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and urban heat islands. For the local-scale climate, such as in the TMA, reductions in the effects of urban heat islands are expected to contribute to the mitigation

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Theo Brandsma and Dirk Wolters

1. Introduction Urban areas affect local and regional weather and air quality. With already one-half of the world’s population living in urban areas, the monitoring and modeling of these effects is increasing ( Arnfield 2003 ; Grimmond 2006 ; Kanda 2007 ). With the resulting models, society can anticipate the potential effects of plans and measures on the living conditions in urban environments. The most known phenomenon is the urban heat island (UHI). In general, the UHI intensity increases

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Roland R. Draxler

AUGUST 1986 ROLAND R. DRAXLER 1125Simulated and Observed Influence of the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island on the Local Wind Field ROLAND R. DRAXLERAir Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20910(Manuscript received 15 March 1985, in final form 11 January 1986)ABSTRACT A three-dimensional primative

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Jie Lu, S. Pal Arya, William H. Snyder, and Robert E. Lawson Jr.

Introduction Urban areas are generally warmer and more polluted than their rural environs. The urban-heat-island phenomenon and its associated circulation, driven by the energy generated by anthropogenic sources and the release of energy stored in the city concrete, steel, and asphalt, are found to be most intense at nighttime under clear skies and weak ambient wind. Field experiments on urban boundary layers have been conducted in many cities, such as Montreal ( Summers 1965 ), New York City

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K. P. Gallo, A. L. McNab, T. R. Karl, J. F. Brown, J. J. Hood, and J. D. Tarpley

MAY 1993 GALLO ET AL. 899The Use of NOAA AVHRR Data for Assessment of the Urban Heat Island Effect K. P. GALLOSatellite Research Laboratory, NOAA /NESDIS, Washington, D.C. A. L. MCNAB AND T. R. KARLGlobal Climate Laboratory, NOAA /NESDIS, Asheville, North Carolina J. F. BROWNCenter for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies

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