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Elizabeth C. Kent and Peter K. Taylor

with the oceanographicconstraint of 1 PW of heat transport across 25-N (Halland Bryden 1982). The parameters included in theinverse analysis were the atmospheric transmissionfactor for shortwave radiation, the cloud cover coefficient, cloud cover exponent in the infrared formulaCe, Cr, and the air - sea and dewpoint - sea temperature difference. The uncertainties in the variableswere estimated and the additional constraint appliedthat the sum of the changes in the variables normalizedby the

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Patrice Klein

systematic study ofthe effect of air-sea transfer variability on the marinethermal stratification is undertaken. Indeed, air-seatransfers are essentially variable at time scales of theorder of a few hours or days, due to the diurnalevolution of solar radiation and to the passage ofatmospheric fronts. Because of the nonlinear natureNOVEMBER 1980 P A T R I C E K L E I N 1825of the marine mechanisms, which is apparent

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S. H. Schneider and L. D. D. Harvey

though HS2 involves more spatial resolutionEQUIVALENT MIXED LAYER ~,-~.e~t FIG. 1. The globally averaged mean annual model of Harvey andSchneider (1985a), used for the present study. H: sensible heat flux,LE: latent heat flux, IR: infrared flux, Q: incident solar radiation, a:planetary albedo, 0: ocean temperature, K: ocean thermal diffusioncoefficient, and w: upwelling advection velocity.than is treated here. Throughout tiffs paper, we willinvestigate the response of HS 1 to a step function 2

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Allen H. Schooley

-water interface. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2, 190-198.McAlister, E. D., and W. McLeish, 1969: Heat transfer in the top millimeter of the ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 14, 3408-3414.Omholt, T., 1973: Estimation of the oceanic momentum sublayer thickness. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 3, 337-338.Osborne, M. F. M., 1964: Interpretation of infrared radiation from the sea in terms of its boundary layer. Deut. Hydrogr. Z., - 17, 115-136.Roll, H. U., 1965: Physics of the Marine Atmosphere. Academic Press, 247 pp

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Wilfried Brutsaert

.of radiative surface temperature at the offshore lead atPt. Barrow, Alaska, in April 1972, evidence of a supercooled surface layer was found.2. Instrumentation and procedures An infrared radiometer (PRT5, Barnes EngineeringCo.), which responds to radiation in the atmosphericwindow 8-14t~m, was positioned over open water atheights of 20-60 cm depending on the thickness of thesurrounding ice (see Fig. 1). The radiometer has a 2-viewing angle making the observation spot 1.5-4 cm indiameter. The sensing

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Gilbert N. Plass and George W. Kattawar

radiation field in the earth'satmosphere-ocean system is a formidable problem. Thesolar photons undergo scattering and absorption bythe atmospheric molecules and aerosols, reflection andrefraction at the ocean surface, and further scatteringand absorption within the ocean by the water molecules, the hydrosols, and the ocean floor. All parts ofthis system interact with each other, so that an accuratesolution for the radiation field in the ocean cannot beobtained without consideration of the influence of

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Bin Wang, Tianming Li, and Ping Chang

-eastern equatorial Pacific and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The potential energy generationinduced by penetrative solar radiation tends to reduce entrainment in the central equatorial Pacific but toenhance mixing in the far eastern equatorial Pacific. Without this process, the model central (eastern) Pacificwould be excessively cold (warm). In response to an idealized sequential westerly burst located in the western equatorial Pacific, the CZ modelproduces SST oscillations in the eastern

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Charles W. Horton

downstream) of the subsurface front. Between surveys the anomalous section of the surface front - moved downstream at a speed of about 50 cm s-~. The anomaly in separation was not confined to the mixed layer, but decayed with depth beneath the mixed layer in accordance with the scale JL/N.1. Introduction The path of the Gulf Stream surface front has longbeen charted using satellite infrared (IR) sensors. Thesurface front is generally taken to be the position ofthe maximum cross-stream temperature

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Y. Hsueh and Dongliang Yuan

infrared image of the Yellow Sea during the period of the mooring experiment (see Hsueh 1988 ). The purpose of the present study is thus to make such comparisons with the incorporation, in the calculation, of temperature contrasts during the mooring experiment and the realistic topography of the Yellow Sea. To calculate the flow field, a vertically integrated, constant-density model of the Yellow Sea, previously used to study the sea level fluctuations, is adapted ( Hsueh et al. 1986 ). It is tacitly

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S. Sathiyamoorthy and G. W. K. Moore

other terms sum to a maximum of 25 W m −2 . The 250 W m −2 translates to about 2.5 mm h −1 and is a maximum value from the winters; the mean is 20 W m −2 and is equivalent to 0.2 mm h −1 . There are several different global precipitation climatologies available, including those that are blends of some combination of gauge observations, satellite observations [infrared, outgoing longwave radiation, microwave sounding unit, and microwave scattering and emission from the Special Sensor Microwave

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