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Stephanie M. Wingo and Kevin R. Knupp

( Li et al. 2013 ). Regardless of the platform, however, observations of these features have been serendipitous at best, but represent a key avenue to understanding the dynamics governing MV formation, evolution, and storm intensity impacts. In this paper, we document the kinematic structure of MVs observed in Hurricane Ike (2008) with ground-based dual-Doppler analyses. The TC eyewall can be simplified as an annulus of elevated potential vorticity (PV), generated in large part by diabatic heating

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Wei-Yu Chang, Wen-Chau Lee, and Yu-Chieng Liou

precipitation patterns under climate change (e.g., drought due to reduced PE) is also a key issue for numerous socioeconomic activities ( Tegart et al. 1990 ). A better understanding of the control parameters of PE improves numerical weather prediction and reduces the damage from extreme hazards ( Doswell et al. 1996 ). The kinematic and microphysical structures of precipitation systems are mainly determined by the environmental conditions in different climatological regions. The precipitation systems

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Jason C. Knievel and Richard H. Johnson

beyond the clouds and rain of an MCS ( Menard and Fritsch 1989 ; Pandya and Durran 1996 ), so what appears to be the environment in radar and satellite images may, kinematically, still be the MCS. Convectively generated gravity waves and buoyancy rolls are the agents that transmit MCSs' circulations farthest ( Nicholls et al. 1991 ; Mapes 1993 ). How far they are transmitted depends on the Rossby radius of deformation: wherein N is the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, H is the scale height of the

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Erik N. Rasmussen and Steven A. Rutledge

2584 .IOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 50, No. 16Evolution of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Squall Lines. Part I: Kinematic and Refiecfivity Structure ERIK N. RASMUSSEN* AND STEVEN A. RUTLEDGEDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado(Manuscript received 22 January 1992, in final form 27 July 1992)ABSTRACT Doppler radar observations that establish common patterns in

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David E. Kingsmill and Roger M. Wakimoto

262 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWKinematic, Dynamic, and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Weakly Sheared Severe Thunderstorm over Northern Alabama DAVID E. KINGSMILL AND ROGER M. WAK1MOTODepartment of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los .4ngeles. California(Manuscript received 3 April 1990, in final form 24 August 1990) A kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic analysis of a weakly sheared, airmass thunderstorm observedover northern

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Leon T. Nguyen, Robert F. Rogers, and Paul D. Reasor

Bertha, 0600 UTC 25 Aug–0600 UTC 26 Aug for Cristobal). The remainder of the paper will discuss the precipitation asymmetry, as well as the potential thermodynamic and kinematic influences on that asymmetry in both storms. Particular focus will be on observations during the 1800 UTC 3 August–0000 UTC 4 August period in Bertha ( Fig. 1b ), and the 1800 UTC 25 August–0000 UTC 26 August period in Cristobal ( Fig. 1c ). During these periods, both the P-3 and G-IV aircraft were flying in or near these

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Rebecca Schneider and Gary M. Barnes

Administration (NOAA), and the German Aerospace Research Establishment. These sondes collect data at 2 Hz and provide 6–7-m vertical resolution down to the ocean surface. At present, the GPS sondes may not be deployed over land, but they can be used to sample the onshore and offshore flow over the adjacent coastal seas. We use the GPS sondes to examine the vortex-scale thermodynamic and kinematic structure of Hurricane Bonnie on 26 August 1998, just prior to its landfall in North Carolina. The deployment of

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Conrad L. Ziegler, Peter S. Ray, and Donald R. MacGorman

2098 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 43, No. 19Relations of Kinematics,Microphysics and Electrificationin an Isolated Mountain ThunderstormCONRAD L. ZIEGLER, PETER s. RAY,* AND DONALD R. MAORMAN National Severe Storms Laboralory, NOAA, Norman. OK 73069 (Manuscript received 26 August 1985, in final form 7 April 1986)ABSTRACTThis paper ad- aspects of the airflow, microphysics, and electrification in a mountain thunderstormwhich occurred on 7 August 1979 over the Langmuir

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Hugh Morrison and Wojciech W. Grabowski

tested. These results are compared to simulations using a detailed bin-resolving microphysics scheme. Evaluation of bulk parameterizations against bin models has been a traditional approach (e.g., Beheng 1994 , hereafter B1994 ; Berry and Reinhardt 1973 ; SB2001 ). Wood (2005b) tested various autoconversion and accretion parameterizations using rates derived from numerical solution of the collision–coalescence equation combined with observed particle size distributions. Here we use a kinematic

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Peter Dodge, Robert W. Burpee, and Frank D. Marks Jr.

height, but in contrast with Alicia, the maximum updrafts were at low levels and the radial flow was weak and outward below 5 km. The differences in the patterns of the radial flow and vertical velocity between Alicia and Norbert may be related to intensity change. Alicia was slowly strengthening but Norbert was weakening. Franklin et al. (1993) incorporated airborne Doppler data in a kinematic analysis of Hurricane Gloria of 1985, one of the most intense hurricanes observed in the Atlantic

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