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Remko Uijlenhoet, Matthias Steiner, and James A. Smith

Marshall–Palmer type raindrop-size distributions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 23 , 768 – 771 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<0768:TRBAFM>2.0.CO;2 Best, A. C. , 1950 : Empirical formulae for the terminal velocity of water drops falling through the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 76 , 302 – 311 . 10.1002/qj.49707632905 Biggerstaff, M. I. , and Houze R. A. Jr. , 1991 : Kinematic and precipitation structure of the 10–11 June 1985 squall line. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 119 , 3034 – 3065

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Toshi Matsui, Brenda Dolan, Takamichi Iguchi, Steven A. Rutledge, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Stephen Lang

and saturation adjustment, (iii) riming and ice aggregation processes, and (iv) the breakup of large particles. Some of these biases/uncertainties in the microphysics may be related to the inaccurate representation of model dynamics, which may not truly resolve convective thermal bubbles ( Hernandez-Deckers and Sherwood 2016 ). In summary, this study showed that polarimetric radar signatures have unique L-O contrasts signals, which fundamentally characterize the microphysics and kinematics between

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Allen B. White, Paul J. Neiman, Jessie M. Creamean, Timothy Coleman, F. Martin Ralph, and Kimberly A. Prather

. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 847 – 870 , doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1059.1 . Kingsmill, D. E. , White A. B. , Neiman P. J. , and Ralph F. M. , 2006 : Synoptic and topographic variability of Northern California precipitation characteristics in landfalling winter storms observed during CALJET . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2072 – 2094 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3166.1 . Kingsmill, D. E. , Neiman P. J. , Moore B. J. , Hughes M. , Yuter S. E. , and Ralph M. , 2013 : Kinematic and thermodynamic structures of

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Luca Ferraris, Roberto Rudari, and Franco Siccardi

all the Ligurian basins as well as in the target area of this study ( Giannoni et al. 2000 , 2001 ). Two kinematic parameters—namely, two characteristic velocities, one for the hillslope links and the other for the channel paths—link the geomorphic structure of the basin to the hydrologic processes that take place on the different components of the drainage network. In this way, the scale definition of the Geomorphologic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (GIUH), considered the weak point of this kind

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Yan Zhang, James A. Smith, Alexandros A. Ntelekos, Mary Lynn Baeck, Witold F. Krajewski, and Fred Moshary

. , Krajewski W. F. , and Ntelekos A. A. , 2008 : Variability of rainfall rate and raindrop size distributions in heavy rain. Water Resour. Res. , 45 , W04430 . doi:10.1029/2008WR006840 . Steiner, M. , and Smith J. A. , 1998 : Convective versus stratiform rainfall: An ice microphysical and kinematic conceptual model. Atmos. Res. , 48 , 317 – 326 . Steiner, M. , Houze R. A. Jr. , and Yuter S. E. , 1995 : Climatological characterization of three-dimensional storm structure from

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Timothy DelSole, and Mei Zhao

, atmospheric kinematic fields, and thermodynamic fields generally leads to reduction in the mean errors and improvement in patterns of evaporation, precipitation, recycling ratio, and the transport of moisture supplying precipitation, as indicated by moisture advection and the patterns of surface evaporative sources. Table 1 shows that over land, empirical correction reduces the RMSE of mean boreal summer evaporation by 41%, moisture transport errors are reduced by 28%, precipitation by 18%, and

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Deepti Joshi, Marco Carrera, Stephane Bélair, and Sylvie Leroyer

modeling perspectives . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 7209 – 7225 , doi: 10.1029/95JD02135 . Bluestein, H. B. , 1992 : Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics . Vol. 1, Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes , Oxford University Press, 431 pp . Bontemps, S. , Defourney P. , Bogaert E. V. , Arino O. , Kalogirou V. , and Perez J. R. , 2011 : GLOBCOVER 2009: Product description and validation report. Université catholique de Louvain and ESA, 53 pp. [Available online at http

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Isidora Jankov, Lewis D. Grasso, Manajit Sengupta, Paul J. Neiman, Dusanka Zupanski, Milija Zupanski, Daniel Lindsey, Donald W. Hillger, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Renate Brummer, and Huiling Yuan

) successfully produced synthetic imagery of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) that is part of the Meteosat Second Generation ( MSG ) satellite. In their study, imagery was produced from output of version 2.2 of the WRF model that covered a relatively large domain. Traditionally, the performance of a numerical model has been evaluated by comparing simulated kinematic and/or thermodynamic fields to observed fields. For example, some of the fields may be surface winds, temperature

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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, John Kalogiros, Marios N. Anagnostou, and Walt Petersen

, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900123 . 10.1029/1999JD900123 Yuter , S. E. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1941 – 1963 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1995)123<1941:TDKAME>2.0.CO;2 Zhang , J. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Multi-Radar Multi

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Jian Zhang, Youcun Qi, Carrie Langston, Brian Kaney, and Kenneth Howard

distribution and sampling size errors . J. Atmos. Sci. , 26 , 566 – 569 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1969)026<0566:RSDASS>2.0.CO;2 . Kingsmill, D. E. , Neiman P. J. , Moore B. J. , Hughes M. , Yuter S. E. , and Ralph F. M. , 2013 : Kinematic and thermodynamic structures of Sierra barrier jets and overrunning atmospheric rivers during a landfalling winter storm in northern California . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 2015 – 2036 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00277.1 . Kitchen, M. , Brown R. , and Davies

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