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C. Herbaut, M. Crépon, and L. Mortier

JANUARY 1996 HERBAUT ET AL. 65A Sensitivity Study of the General Circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Part I: The Response to Density Forcing through the Straits C. HERBAUTLaboratoire D'Oceanographic Dynarnique et de Climatologie, UMR 121, CNRS/UPMC/ORSTOM, Paris, France L. MORTIERCETIIS, Ivry-Sitr-Seine, France M. CR

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Maria Hatzaki, Helena A. Flocas, Ian Simmonds, John Kouroutzoglou, Kevin Keay, and Irina Rudeva

(MS algorithm) is applied ( Murray and Simmonds 1991a ), based on the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) of 6-h mean sea level pressure ( Dee et al. 2011 ). This algorithm has been extensively applied for cyclone studies worldwide and it has been also successfully applied on the Mediterranean cyclones, although its use for anticyclone tracking has up to now been limited to the SH ( Jones and Simmonds 1994 ; Sinclair 1994 ; Pezza et al

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Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, Rosalia Santoleri, and Stefania Sparnocchia

developement and dispersal of small eddies, especially from the coastal areas to the open ocean, could represent a major contribution to the total budget. In this context, we can consider the Mediterranean Sea as a perfect experimental test area. This basin is, in fact, characterized by low values of both resident biomass and estimated annual primary production ( Platt 1985 ; Azov 1991 ). On the other hand, mesoscale features are often recognized in satellite altimeter, ocean color, and sea surface

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David Antoine, André Morel, Edouard Leymarie, Amel Houyou, Bernard Gentili, Stéphane Victori, Jean-Pierre Buis, Nicolas Buis, Sylvain Meunier, Marius Canini, Didier Crozel, Bertrand Fougnie, and Patrice Henry

radiance distribution. The progressive modification of L (Ξ) with increasing depth was described and the trend toward a diffuse light regime (or “asymptotic radiance” distribution) was corroborated by these early measurements. A set of L (Ξ) measurements was collected in the Mediterranean Sea in 1971 by Norwegian oceanographers aboard the R/V Helland-Hansen . These data have been recently reanalyzed by Aas and Højerslev (1999) and Adams et al. (2002) , who also give a historical account of

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L. Cucurull, F. Vandenberghe, D. Barker, E. Vilaclara, and A. Rius

conditions on 14 December are summarized in Fig. 2 . At 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2a ), the sea level high pressure area was located over Denmark (1044 hPa) and moved to Scotland at 2400 UTC ( Fig. 2c ). At the same time, a low pressure area developed in the Mediterranean Sea at 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2a ) with a 1008-hPa central pressure over Corsica and a secondary minimum over the Catalan coast at 2400 UTC ( Fig. 2c ). At 850 hPa, the cold sector of the temperature field was located over eastern Europe ( Fig. 2b ) at

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Earl E. Gossard

Seasonal charts of air-sea difference in refractive index are presented for the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia areas. The charts are discussed briefly in terms of the climatic regimes of the area, and applications to extended radar coverage are suggested.

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

. Impacts of synoptic/regional circulation patterns on transport and transformation processes of PM are discussed thoroughly in this work. b. Regional climatological description The Mediterranean Sea is closed from all sides and is surrounded by high peninsulas and important mountain barriers. The gaps between these major mountainous regions act as channels for the airmass transport toward the GMR. The climatic conditions in the GMR can be roughly divided into cold and warm periods ( Maheras et al. 1999

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H. Kontoyiannis, V. Lykousis, V. Papadopoulos, S. Stavrakakis, E. G. Anassontzis, A. Belias, S. Koutsoukos, and L. K. Resvanis

overall absence of current measurements in the eastern Mediterranean is also vital with respect to the assessment of the mixing processes. Most of the existing direct current observations are from surface drifters ( Gerin et al. 2009 ; Menna et al. 2012 ) or current-meter moorings deployed in areas of sea straits ( Astraldi et al. 1999 ; Kontoyiannis et al. 1999 ). Deep current-meter measurements have been obtained off the coast of Libya at depths of 2000 m ( ) and

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Donald B. Olson, Vassiliki H. Kourafalou, William E. Johns, Geoff Samuels, and Milena Veneziani

forcing and the Aegean Sea’s role as a connection between the Black Sea and the greater Mediterranean Sea leads to a setting with important implications for the dynamics of the latter and the World Ocean as a whole ( Balopoulos et al. 1999 ). The details of the physics of the Aegean Sea are also crucial for understanding the biogeochemistry of the region, where the Aegean forms a transition between the eutrophic Black Sea and the highly oligotrophic Mediterranean ( Siokou-Frangou et al. 2002 ). A

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Frédérique Chéruy and Filipe Aires

calculated over large (300 km) grid boxes. Second, use them to evaluate cloud properties simulated by a GCM at a regional scale. The method allows for the estimation of to what extent the defect of the global model affects a particular area—the southern European Mediterranean Sea area, which is poorly studied in terms of climate models. We consider the southern Europe Mediterranean area here (28°–50°N, 15°W–40°E): the particular land–sea distribution of the region and its rich topography are likely to

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