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P. Y. Le Traon, F. Nadal, and N. Ducet

.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0161:UTDTED>2.0.CO;2 ——, ——, F. Ogor, and J. Dorandeu, 1995b: Satellites work in tandem to improve accuracy of data. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 76, 385–389. 10.1029/95EO00235 Mazzega, P., and S. Houry, 1989: An experiment to invert Seasat altimetry for the Mediterranean and Black Sea mean surfaces. Geophys. J., 96, 259–272. 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1989.tb04450.x ——, M. Berge, A. Cazenave, and P. Schaeffer, 1998: Maps of the mean sea surface and corresponding gravity anomalies from ERS-1

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Ananda Pascual, Christine Boone, Gilles Larnicol, and Pierre-Yves Le Traon

sea level in coastal and shelf areas, which represents a big challenge for satellite altimetry ( Vignudelli et al. 2005 ). More recently, Pascual et al. (2007) have carried out a detailed study evaluating the influence of combining several altimeter missions over the Mediterranean Sea. They have shown that with the combination of three altimeters, the sea level and velocity can be mapped with a relative accuracy of about 6% and 23%, respectively, which is an improvement by a factor of 2

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Lucy M. Bricheno, Albert Soret, Judith Wolf, Oriol Jorba, and Jose Maria Baldasano

Brown et al. (2010b) . Ardhuin et al. (2007) and Bertotti et al. (2012) have found substantial differences between the results of different operational models of wind and waves for an extreme storm in the western Mediterranean Sea concerning the peak values of wind speed and significant wave height, the general distribution of the fields, and the locations of the maxima. Miller et al. (2010) describe the improvements in integrated forecast system (IFS) skills during the last resolution

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R. P. Cechet, J. Bennett, I. Helmond, P. A. Coppin, E. F. Bradley, I. J. Bapton, and J. S. Godfrey

absorption). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced VeryHigh Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) can currentlysupply SST with an accuracy of 0.7 -C in midlatitudesand 1 --2 o C in the tropics (Barton 1992 ). Deschampsand Frouin (1984) used satellite data without in situmeasurements to show diurnal warming in the Mediterranean Sea. Large diurnal warming events seen insatellite-derived SST were investigated by Stramma etJUNE1994

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J. D. Stark, C. Donlon, A. O’Carroll, and G. Corlett

were integrated over the regions and are defined in Table 3 . In all four reanalysis cases, the modified bias values improved the accuracy of the OSTIA SST fnd compared to the operational system in all the areas studied, except the Mediterranean Sea. In this area and the Arctic Ocean, the low number of observations and large analysis errors mean that the results are not robust. The best bias-correction impact results using the OSTIA system were obtained when Δ T bias was set to zero. Figure 4

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Emanuele Organelli, Hervé Claustre, Annick Bricaud, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Poteau, Xiaogang Xing, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, Giorgio Dall’Olmo, and Vincenzo Vellucci

residuals on a fourth-degree polynomial fit efficiently detected the various perturbations. Corrected profiles were, therefore, provided ( Fig. 7 ). Fig . 7. Examples of vertical profiles before and after QC processing (only points flagged as “1” and “2” are shown): (a) E d (380) from float WMO 6901439 (South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre); (b) E d (412) from float WMO 6901528 (eastern Mediterranean Sea); (c) E d (490) from float WMO 6901485 (North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre); and (d) PAR from float WMO

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An T. Nguyen, Patrick Heimbach, Vikram V. Garg, Victor Ocaña, Craig Lee, and Luc Rainville

column beyond fixed-mooring arrays, this work examines the value that Argo-type observations may add to sampling the deep Arctic Mediterranean that is mostly invisible to the current ITP observing network. Fig . 2. (a) Flowchart of the two modes in which an Argo float is thought to operate in the Arctic. Loop 1 corresponds to open-water conditions. In the presence of sea ice, the float operates in Loop 2 without surfacing to communicate with the satellite and relay data. In the seasonal ice zone, the

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C. G. Helmis, C. Jacovides, D. N. Asimakopoulos, and H. A. Flocas

1. Introduction Scopelos is a small island in the northwestern Aegean Sea, which is situated in the eastern Mediterranean Basin between Greece and Turkey, extending a few hundred kilometers. An experimental campaign was carried out in summer 1996 near the shoreline at the northeastern part of Scopelos; the goal was the study of the airflow regime at a location where the new local airport was proposed to be constructed. During summer, a weak synoptic wind prevails over the Aegean Sea under the

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Andrea M. Doglioli, Francesco Nencioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Gilles Rougier, Jean-Luc Fuda, and Nicolas Grima

: Variability of the northern current off Marseilles, western Mediterranean Sea, from February to June 1992 . Oceanol. Acta , 182 , 193 – 205 . Flexas, M. M. , Durrieu de Madron X. , Garcia M. A. , Canals M. , and Arnau P. , 2002 : Flow variability in the Gulf of Lions during the MATER HFF experiment (March–May 1997) . J. Mar. Syst. , 33–34 , 197 – 214 , doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00059-3 . Hillmer, I. , and Imberger J. , 2007 : Estimating in situ phytoplankton growth rates with a

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H-H. Hinrichsen and A. Lehmann

Mediterranean outflow. Deep Sea Res. A, 26, 535-554. , and ,1979b: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow, I1, The deep circulation in the vicinity of the Gulf of Cadiz. Deep-Sea Res, ;4, 26, 555-568. .Armi, L., D. Hebert, N. Oakey, J. Price, P. L. Richardson, T. Rossby, and B. Ruddick, 1989: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 354-370.Bretherton, F. P., R. E. Davis, and C. B. Fandry, 1976: A technique for objective analysis and design of

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