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Kelly Lombardo

and atmospheric bores: Part I: Nocturnal wind surges . Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 31 , 133 – 145 . Clark , R. H. , 1984 : Colliding sea-breezes and the creation of internal atmospheric bore waves: Two-dimensional numerical studies . Aust. Meteor. Mag. , 32 , 207 – 226 . Cohuet , J. B. , R. Romero , V. Homar , V. Ducrocq , and C. Ramis , 2011 : Initiation of a severe thunderstorm over the Mediterranean Sea . Atmos. Res. , 100 , 603 – 620 ,

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Osamu Isoguchi and Hiroshi Kawamura

1. Introduction Local winds are driven by large/mesoscale atmospheric circulations or induced by land topography. They consist of two types: those mechanically induced, such as mountain waves, downslope winds, and wakes; and those thermally induced, such as land and sea breezes and slope and valley winds (e.g., Stull 1988 ). These local circulations over land have been studied intensively because of human concerns over these phenomena and the easy setup of meteorological instruments, which

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Jerome Namias

equatorward expansionfollowed by a contraction - the entire period consuming some four to six weeks during winter. Whileit would be desirable to relate these cycles to Stockholm's temperature, the available upper-air data forpast years make this impossible. However, the couplingbetween sea-level systems and the upper-level jet,particularly for mean maps spanning a month or aseason, is sufficiently close so that an index of the meancircumpolar jet may be estimated from mean sea-levelmaps. This coupling

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Ruby Krishnamurti, Sweta Das, Vinay Kumar, A. Jayakumar, and Anu Simon

performed by Ogi et al. (2008) , Rigor and Wallace (2004) , and Fang and Wallace (1994) . These above references were important for the motivation of our study. Rodwell and Hoskins (1996) have provided a link between the South Asian monsoon and the descent of air over Sahara–Mediterranean and the Aral Sea regions. This was a modeling study where a remote diabatic heating of the Asian monsoon region induces a Rossby wave that shows a descent over some of these desert regions. That study has relevance

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Sergey M. Sakerin and Dmitry M. Kabanov

transparency and the features of spectral behavior τ A ( λ ) over different areas of the ocean. 2. Experiment and methodology a. General characteristics of the experiments Measurements of the atmospheric transparency carried out in five expeditions cover the greater part of the central and North Atlantic (latitudinal zone from 10°S to 60°N), as well as the North and the Mediterranean Seas. Experimental sites and the routes of the research vessels ( Fig. 1 ) give a general idea of the operational

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William E. Cobb and Howard J. Wells

. Results and discussion Fig. 2 shows average values of the total conductivityin fair weather along the route of the Oceanographer.Also shown are comparative values obtained by theCarnegie. Conductivity values are shown for the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and Indonesian Islands and offthe coast of Australia. These values cannot be considered typical of the open ocean because of nearby landmasses. A significant result of the voyage concerns the highatmospheric conductivity found during the

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A. Kazantzidis, D. S. Balis, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, E. Galani, E. Kosmidis, and M. Blumthaler

of the aerosol optical properties during daylight hours in relation to the respective variation of the prevailing meteorological parameters. 2. Spectral measurements The SUSPEN intercomparison campaign took place at Nea Michaniona, Greece [40°28′N, 22°51′E, 20 m above sea level (ASL)] during 1–10 July 1997. A wide range of UV spectroradiometers was present, operated by 19 groups from 15 countries. The campaign site was 1 km from Nea Michaniona, a village of 8000 inhabitants, and 20 km from the

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Maurice L. Blackmon, Y-H. Lee, and John M. Wallace

barotropic instability inaccounting for these structural characteristics are discussed.1. Introduction In a recent paper, Wallace and Gutzler (1981, hereafter referred to as WG) presented evidence for theexistence of several teleconnection patterns occurringin monthly anomalies in the Northern Hemisphereduring winter. They identified five teleconnection patterns for the 500 mb geopotential height field and twofor the sea level pressure field. The 500 mb patternsare shown schematically in Fig. 1 and

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R. Dixon, E. A. Spackman, I. Jones, and Anne Francis

number. The actual situation may be a little more complicatedsince if, for example, the sequence of orthogonal ~'s hasbeen generated starting from the Cartesian set it maybe desired to convert (24) back to (10), in other wordsto find a rather than b. This is simply done since it mayMAY1972 DIXON, SPACKMAN, JONES AND FRANCIS 615Fro. 6. Mean sea-level pressure analysis for 0000 GMT 25 November 1969, hand

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Gregory J. Hakim and Amelia K. Canavan

571 628 anticyclone tracks. Preferred cyclone locations include the poleward side of the climatological locations of the Atlantic and Pacific jet streams, the Canadian Arctic, the Mediterranean Sea through the Middle East, and Russia; local minima are found on the equatorward side of the jet streams, near the North Pole and near regions of high terrain such as the Rocky Mountains, the Himalaya Plateau, and northern Greenland ( Fig. 2a ). These locations are in good agreement with those found by

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