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M. Ionita, M. Dima, G. Lohmann, P. Scholz, and N. Rimbu

spring and summer floods over central Europe and is known as “Zugstrasse Vb” ( Mudelsee et al. 2004 ), advected a lot of moisture from the Mediterranean Sea toward the Alps. Societies with large populations located within river watersheds use water for social purposes, agriculture, and industrial production. Therefore, streamflow forecasting is of great importance for water resource management and flood defense. Although the predictability of the seasonal streamflows is a central aspect in the

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Sonja S. Folwell, Phil P. Harris, and Christopher M. Taylor

and accumulate over several days to produce mega-heat waves. They attribute the strength of the 2003 European and 2010 Russian heat wave events to this mechanism. Similarly, nonlocal effects may play a role, with anomalously low winter and spring soil moisture patterns propagating northward from the Mediterranean to central and northern Europe, through transportation of warm dry air ( Quesada et al. 2012 ; Vautard et al. 2007b ; Zampieri et al. 2009 ). Established soil moisture deficits can then

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Karl Vanderlinden, Juan Vicente Giráldez, and Marc Van Meirvenne

Mediterranean coasts or to site-specific windy or cloudy conditions (e.g., near the Gibraltar Peninsula), but in general not to elevation since all coastal observatories are located close to sea level. Therefore, eliminating these observatories, the overall correlation between ET 0 and elevation was improved from −0.75 to −0.86. The relationship of ET 0 with elevation was modeled using a quadratic polynomial function ( Fig. 3 ). During the winter (e.g., January) the fitted functions behaved almost

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Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann, Norel Rimbu, and Silvia Chelcea

. Lloyd-Hughes, B. , and Saunders M. A. , 2002 : Seasonal prediction of European spring precipitation from ENSO and local sea surface temperatures . Int. J. Climatol. , 22 , 1 – 14 . Mariotti, A. , Zeng N. , and Lau K.-M. , 2002 : Euro-Mediterranean rainfall and ENSO—A seasonally varying relationship . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 , 1621 , doi:10.1029/2001GL014248 . Marshall, J. , and Coauthors , 2001 : North Atlantic climate variability: Phenomena, impacts and mechanisms . Int. J

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Ludovic Bouilloud, Katia Chancibault, Béatrice Vincendon, Véronique Ducrocq, Florence Habets, Georges-Marie Saulnier, Sandrine Anquetin, Eric Martin, and Joel Noilhan

1. Introduction The western Mediterranean region is regularly affected by devastating flash-flood events, particularly during autumn. These flash-floods have been responsible for human casualties and severe infrastructure damage. All the areas located close to the Mediterranean Sea are concerned by this phenomenon. In southern France, several extreme precipitation events associated with severe flash-floods have occurred during recent decades (see Nuissier et al. 2008 ). This area is

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S. Nandargi and O. N. Dhar

northwest Himalayan region The northwest India and the northwest Himalayan regions are particularly prone to vagaries of severe weather situations causing severe floods, disruption of communications, loss of human lives, etc. every year. This region is particularly influenced by western disturbances that originate from extratropics in the Mediterranean and Caspian seas and travel to Indian region mostly during winter season, giving snowfall, rainfall, and chilly weather conditions. On average, five to

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Francesco Silvestro, Nicola Rebora, and Luca Ferraris

. Following this approach, the fact that a rainfall scenario causes the exceedance of a certain k T in a particular basin is representative also of the other neighbor basins with similar hydrological response. 3. Territorial context The Italian region of Liguria is a narrow strip of land about 250 km long and 20–30 km wide with a surface area of about 5421 km 2 . It has very few flat areas and is covered mainly by forest. Most of the catchments have their outlet in the Mediterranean Sea and, because of

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Mathew A. Barlow and Michael K. Tippett

via extratropical Rossby wave activity; that is, the tropospheric winds at all levels have anomalies similar in direction to those aloft, and the jet level winds, therefore, are in this case an indicator of changes in moisture flux. The climatological vertically integrated moisture flux is shown in Fig. 7a . The climatological moisture flux is from the west, and several water bodies supply moisture to central Asia, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea. The

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Rana Samuels, Alon Rimmer, Andreas Hartmann, Simon Krichak, and Pinhas Alpert

results should be seen as a first approximation used to test the ability of the approach and its sensitivity to changes in climate parameters in the vulnerable areas of the eastern Mediterranean (EM) and the Middle East. The approach should be improved and validated based on results from additional climate models. However, for now, the methodology can provide important information for water policy and planning. This study specifically focuses on the important meteorological variables for precipitation

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Seyed-Mohammad Hosseini-Moghari and Qiuhong Tang

categorical validation metrics, respectively. From Fig. 6 , in early and late runs, KGE values are almost negative in the south of Iran, which are probably affected by large RBias in this area. Generally, KGE values are significantly improved in the final runs. The lowest CCs and highest negative RBias can be seen in the south of the Caspian Sea, suggesting that the IPPs neither estimate rainfall dynamic well nor its amount resulted in RMSE more than 10 mm in this region. In early and late runs for V06

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