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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

canopy tropical forests. Science 284 : 1832 – 1835 . Duivenvoorden , J. F. 1996 . Patterns of tree species richness in rain forests of the middle Caqueta area, Colombia, NW Amazonia. Biotropica 28 : 142 – 158 . Ferreira , L. G. , H. Yoshioka , A. Huete , and E. E. Sano . 2003 . Seasonal landscape and spectral vegetation index dynamics in the Brazilian Cerrado: An analysis within the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazônia (LBA). Remote Sens. Environ. 87

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John Risley, Hamid Moradkhani, Lauren Hay, and Steve Markstrom

1. Introduction Findings from Bernstein et al. ( Bernstein et al. 2007 ) describe how climate change resulting from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere will cause spatial and temporal alterations in the distribution of water resources in river drainage basins during the twenty-first century. To analyze potential shifts in water resources, climate output from general circulation models (GCMs) has often been input to hydrologic models that are used to simulate

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Mark C. Mastin, Katherine J. Chase, and R. W. Dudley

River basin is on the lee side of the Cascade Range, and the highest elevations of the basin are along its western margin, which continues to maintain a spring snowpack even for warmer 2090 conditions. The lower, arid parts on the eastern side of the basin, as well as the valley bottoms in the center of the basin, did not have a spring snowpack even in 2006; thus, the greatest change in SCA occurs in the middle, mid-elevation portion of the basin on the valley slopes and ridge tops. Figure 2

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

950 mm. Mean annual values of potential and effective evapotranspiration are about 780 and 460 mm, respectively. The climate of the river basin can be classified as subhumid–humid, following Thornthwaite ( Thornthwaite 1948 ). Mean annual flow is about 150.1 Mm 3 yr −1 , whereas the available groundwater resources amount to ~103 Mm 3 yr −1 . The middle valley of the Alcantara River is characterized by perennial surface flows enriched by spring water arising from the big aquifer of the Etna

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Heather Tollerud, Jesslyn Brown, Tom Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood, and Norman Bliss

et al. (2009 , 2010) , and Saatchi et al. (2013) . Land–atmosphere feedbacks enhance the importance of drought impacts on vegetation. Climate-forced changes in vegetation produce feedbacks to the atmospheric system because of modifications in biogeophysical properties. When vegetation is water stressed, albedo increases and latent energy flux decreases, which may decrease atmospheric instability, convection, and cloud development. Human-forced LULC changes further complicate these land–atmosphere

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Lauren E. Hay, Steven L. Markstrom, and Christian Ward-Garrison

temperature and precipitation to estimate the daily variation in solar radiation at the surface and daily temperature of the evaporation surfaces. The JH method does not explicitly account for daily variation in relative humidity and assumes complete mixing of the atmosphere above the evaporation surface and hence does not explicitly account for variation in the near-surface vapor pressure gradient and mass transfer of vapor into the atmosphere. 3.1.2. PRMS calibration and evaluation The PRMS models used

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Bharat Rastogi, A. Park Williams, Douglas T. Fischer, Sam F. Iacobellis, Kathryn McEachern, Leila Carvalho, Charles Jones, Sara A. Baguskas, and Christopher J. Still

angle and optical thickness of the atmosphere. We inferred the latter part of both representing a range in cloudiness. We selected a threshold (0.3) that was to the right of the bell-shaped portion of both curves. This threshold is also the same as that used by the ISCCP dataset to estimate cloud fraction from GOES imagery ( Rossow and Schiffer 1991 ). To check if the same threshold was applicable to different times of the day and year, separate empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFS) of

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Christopher M. Van de Ven, S. B. Weiss, and W. G. Ernst

), through limestones, clastic metasediments, and alluvium near the middle, and to igneous substrates at the bottom. The moderate eigenvalue for axis 2 (0.23) indicates substantial separation of species along the geologic gradient. Bristlecone pine [ Pinus longaeva (PILO)] has a strong affinity for calcareous rocks but does occur on other substrates, whereas aspen [ Populus tremuloides (POTR)] is confined almost exclusively to granitic substrates. Topographic position (tp1000) also influences axis 2

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Olivia Kellner and Dev Niyogi

of the Fujita scale in 1974, except for 1980. This shows the bias nature of higher F-scale rankings preceding the development of the Fujita scale ( McCarthy 2003 ; McCarthy et al. 2006 ; Edwards et al. 2013 ). Table 1. (left) A list of the active tornado day years for all tornadoes defined by having the total number of tornado days one standard deviation (4 days) or more above the mean (9 days). (middle) A list of the active tornado day years for weak tornadoes defined as defined by having the

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Norbert Anselm, Oscar Rojas, Grischa Brokamp, and Brigitta Schütt

( Kousky and Kagano 1981 ; Zhou and Lau 2001 ; Dai and Trenberth 2002 ; Liu and Alexander 2007 ). However, Earth’s climate is strongly variable and an object of steady change and adaption ( Thornton et al. 2014 ). Key to understanding the fluxes across great distances is knowledge on large-scale atmosphere–ocean interactions ( Liu and Yang 2003 ; Liu and Alexander 2007 ). Several such coupled land–ocean–atmosphere circulation systems (also referred to as teleconnections) are known, such as the

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