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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

, Hirabayashi et al. (2008) also pointed out that a statistically reliable evaluation of model performance with respect to extremes on large (global) scales is hampered by the scarcity of long-term observations. Recently, Feyen and Dankers (2009) compared the return periods of selected low-flow statistics derived from observed and simulated daily data from rivers across Europe, highlighting deficiencies of the simulations in the frost season. In an accompanying study, Dankers and Feyen (2009) reported

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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 4183, doi:10.1029/2001JD001409 . Black , T. , 1994 : The new NMC mesoscale Eta Model: Description and forecast examples. Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 265 – 278 . Byun , D. W. , and K. L. Schere , 2006 : Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Appl. Mech. Rev. , 59 , 51 – 77 . Cai , C. , 2006 : Implementation and performance evaluation of an

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Augusto Getirana, Aaron Boone, Christophe Peugeot, and ALMIP2 Working Group

to evaluate 1) the water budget provided by LSMs at different spatial and temporal scales (e.g., Lohmann et al. 1998 ; Boone et al. 2004 ; Getirana et al. 2014b ) and 2) precipitation datasets ( Yilmaz et al. 2005 ; Getirana et al. 2011 ; Li et al. 2015 ; Zubieta et al. 2015 ). Its main advantage is the fact that streamflow can be directly measured, with cost-effective methods, at almost any location. Additionally, water discharge gives a spatially distributed measure of model performance

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Grigory Nikulin, Colin Jones, Filippo Giorgi, Ghassem Asrar, Matthias Büchner, Ruth Cerezo-Mota, Ole Bøssing Christensen, Michel Déqué, Jesus Fernandez, Andreas Hänsler, Erik van Meijgaard, Patrick Samuelsson, Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla, and Laxmi Sushama

performed within the CORDEX-Africa project. The ensemble consists of 10 different RCMs all run at ~50-km resolution, on a common grid, and driven by ERA-Interim for the period 1989–2008. Performance of the individual models and the ensemble average is evaluated in detail for different aspects of African precipitation, namely, seasonal means, West African monsoon rainfall, and annual and diurnal cycles. Several gridded precipitation products, based on ground and/or satellite-derived observations, are

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Daniela Dalmonech, Sönke Zaehle, Gregor J. Schürmann, Victor Brovkin, Christian Reick, and Reiner Schnur

spatial pattern, but are not used in the benchmarking analysis, as it was already performed in Anav et al. (2013) and Hageman et al. (2013) . d. Benchmarking The quantification of data–model differences relies on the method presented by Dalmonech and Zaehle (2013) , focusing on the most pertinent observation-based characteristics of the C cycle ( Table 2 ). We evaluate the model performance both with respect to the state of the system and its trend (top-down metrics), as well as the relationship

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Temple R. Lee, Michael Buban, David D. Turner, Tilden P. Meyers, and C. Bruce Baker

simulate near-surface exchange processes requires careful and thorough evaluation of the model output to identify and correct potential model biases. We focused our investigation on the southeast United States, where the only known evaluation of the HRRR’s performance is a recent study by Wagner et al. (2019) that used observations from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI; Knuteson et al. 2004 ; Turner and Blumberg 2019 ) installed on the Collaborative Lower Atmosphere Mobile

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Satoru Yokoi, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kazuaki Nishii, Hisashi Nakamura, Hirokazu Endo, Hiroki Ichikawa, Tomoshige Inoue, Masahide Kimoto, Yu Kosaka, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuhiro Oshima, Naoki Sato, Yoko Tsushima, and Masahiro Watanabe

-based analyses of the current state of the climate and its future projection ( Meehl et al. 2007b ). One approach to synthesize outputs of various GCMs is a democratic “one model–one vote” framework, whereas another approach is weighting or screening GCMs depending on their performances (e.g., Santer et al. 2009 ; Knutti et al. 2010 ). In the latter, determination of the weights or screening criteria is a major issue. One way of determination is based on the evaluation of the overall performance of GCMs in

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Hung-Neng S. Chin, Peter M. Caldwell, and David C. Bader

) following Davies (1976) . In this study, cells on the outer boundary of the domain are completely specified by the large-scale and nudging strength decreases exponentially with a five gridcell e -folding length toward the interior of the domain. The nudging zone boundaries are illustrated in Fig. 1a . In our experience, these changes from the WRF default (a five-layer zone with linear decreasing nudging strength) improve model performance for long-range simulations. The vertical axis contains

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Martin W. Jury, Andreas F. Prein, Heimo Truhetz, and Andreas Gobiet

gridcell basis. Fig . 1. Evaluated domain and variables in EURO-CORDEX and its LBZ. Available observational near-surface data (E-OBS) inside the EURO-CORDEX region are indicated by red triangles (tas), blue triangles (pr), and green squares (psl). Upper-air observational data (ERA-40) are indicated by red (ta), blue (hus), turquoise (ua), and green (va) triangles. Several methods to analyze model performance are described in literature (e.g., Pierce et al. 2009 ; Reichler and Kim 2008 ; Gleckler et

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Jing Yang, Wei Yu, Julien Choisnard, Alain Forcione, and Slavica Antic

power generation without icing. Eight cases (based on 12 events, as event numbers 8–10, 22 and 23, and 24 and 25 occurred sufficiently close in time to be considered single cases) are studied to assess the performance of the atmospheric model on icing simulations, and to propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of icing’s impact on energy production. Table 1. The durations of 27 icing events that occurred at one wind plant in the Gaspé region from 2008 to 2010, and average fields during the

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