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H. Bellenger, K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, T. Nishizawa, K. Yasunaga, and R. Shirooka

of several projects, including CINDY2011, DYNAMO, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE), and the Littoral Air–Sea Process (LASP) experiment. The observed increase of moisture in the lower troposphere prior to the triggering of the convectively active phase of the MJO ( Johnson et al. 1999 ; Kemball-Cook and Weare 2001 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ; Thayer-Calder and Randall 2009 ; Riley et al. 2011 ; Cai et al. 2013 ) is one of the fundamental

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Naoyuki Kurita and Hiroyuki Yamada

1. Introduction Land–atmosphere interactions play an important role in the hydrological cycle over the Tibetan Plateau. The intense diurnal cycle of precipitating convective clouds forced by strong daytime surface heating during the summer monsoon season ( Murakami 1983 ; Yanai and Li 1994 ; Fujinami and Yasunari 2001 ) is well known. This active hydrological cycle helps to maintain relatively wet conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. Land– atmosphere feedbacks such as moisture recycling in

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Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Balbhadra Thakur, Rohit Jogineedi, Adam Houston, Shanshui Yuan, Ajay Kalra, and Noah Lock

1. Introduction Soil moisture is an important component of water balance, and it is a key parameter that influences land–atmosphere interactions by modifying energy and water fluxes in the boundary layer ( Eltahir 1998 ; Legates et al. 2011 ). Soil moisture plays an integrative role because it directly influences atmospheric, geomorphic, hydrologic, and biologic processes ( Legates et al. 2011 ). Soil moisture is a key variable for land–atmosphere interactions because it governs

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Lorenzo Alfieri, Pierluigi Claps, Paolo D’Odorico, Francesco Laio, and Thomas M. Over

1. Introduction The land–atmosphere coupling plays an important role in the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle. This role is more important during the warm (i.e., growing) season when soil moisture can affect the energy and water exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere through the process of evapotranspiration (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Schär et al. 1999 ; Betts 2004 ; Koster et al. 2004 ; Seneviratne et al. 2006 ). Despite the numerous studies on the impact of soil moisture

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Natasa Skific, Jennifer A. Francis, and John J. Cassano

; Min et al. 2008 ). These studies suggest that the enhanced warming in the Arctic—owing to positive feedbacks involving snow, ice, water vapor, and clouds—may decrease the salinity of high-latitude oceans, both through increased runoff and ice melt, and enhance high-latitude precipitation. The oceanic thermohaline circulation may then weaken, which would eventually affect global temperatures. Lawrence and Slater (2005) find that increased temperature and unfrozen moisture in the Arctic soil will

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Alexis Berg, Benjamin R. Lintner, Kirsten L. Findell, Sergey Malyshev, Paul C. Loikith, and Pierre Gentine

investigating the impact of land–atmosphere interactions on the distribution of daily surface temperature at the global scale with a focus on the role of soil moisture–atmosphere feedbacks. Soil moisture is a key variable in land–atmosphere interactions: the variations of soil moisture in response to atmospheric conditions (precipitation, radiation, and evaporative demand) impact surface turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, thereby potentially feeding back on atmospheric conditions. For example, low

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Estela A. Collini, Ernesto H. Berbery, Vicente R. Barros, and Matthew E. Pyle

Bolivian high (e.g., Lenters and Cook 1997 ), the thermal low called Chaco low (e.g., Satyamurty et al. 1990 ; Gan et al. 2004 ), and an important inflow of moisture supplied by the low-level jet (LLJ) east of the Andes or South American LLJ (SALLJ) (see, e.g., Barros et al. 2002 ; Marengo et al. 2004 ; Silva and Berbery 2006 ). Although the LLJ is present throughout the year ( Berbery and Barros 2002 ), during the warm season it helps maintain the dynamic balance of the monsoon system ( Rodwell

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Lei Meng and Yanjun Shen

1. Introduction Interactions between soil moisture (SM) and climate have received much attention because of their potential for improving long-term and large-scale climate prediction. SM is an important component in the climate system and its variation can affect water and energy exchange between the surface and the boundary layer of the atmosphere ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). Previous research has shown that SM anomalies can have substantial impacts on precipitation in the transitional region

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Sujay V. Kumar, Rolf H. Reichle, Randal D. Koster, Wade T. Crow, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

1. Introduction Soil moisture (sm) plays an important role in controlling evaporation, plant transpiration, infiltration, and runoff, and consequently in modulating the partitioning of water and energy fluxes across the land–atmosphere interface. Moreover, root-zone soil moisture provides a critical memory function in the climate system at monthly time scales. Characterization of soil moisture in the root zone is therefore important for many applications, including agricultural and water

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Richard J. Ellis, Christopher M. Taylor, Graham P. Weedon, Nicola Gedney, Douglas B. Clark, and Sietse Los

1. Introduction General circulation models (GCMs) constrain the surface moisture flux between land and atmosphere with some representation of soil moisture. Manabe (1969) modified evaporation using a simple ratio between soil moisture and a critical soil moisture (0.75 of the field capacity). Since this rather simple approach for representing soil moisture control of evaporation, a number of models with different levels of complexity have evolved, including Milly and Shmakin (2002) , Dai et

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