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Nikolaos A. Bakas, Navid C. Constantinou, and Petros J. Ioannou

1. Introduction Robust eddy-driven zonal jets are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres ( Ingersoll 1990 ; Ingersoll et al. 2004 ; Vasavada and Showman 2005 ). Laboratory experiments, theoretical studies, and numerical simulations show that small-scale turbulence self-organizes into large-scale coherent structures, which are predominantly zonal and, furthermore, that the small-scale turbulence supports the jets against eddy mixing ( Starr 1968 ; Huang and Robinson 1998 ; Read et al. 2007

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James W. Hannigan, Michael T. Coffey, and Aaron Goldman

1. Introduction Since 1999, regular observations of the infrared (IR) absorption of the atmosphere have been made from a site in Thule, Greenland (76.5°N, 68.8°W, 225 m MSL), by using a solar-viewing Fourier transform interferometer in support of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), formerly the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC; Kurylo 1991 ; Kurylo and Zander 2000 ). The primary function of the NDACC is to provide directly comparable

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Y. Cheng, V. M. Canuto, A. M. Howard, A. S. Ackerman, M. Kelley, A. M. Fridlind, G. A. Schmidt, M. S. Yao, A. Del Genio, and G. S. Elsaesser

Richardson number avoiding self-correlation . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 131 , 345 – 362 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-009-9376-4 . 10.1007/s10546-009-9376-4 André , J. C. , G. DeMoor , P. Lacarrére , and R. du Vachat , 1978 : Modeling the 24-hour evolution of the mean and turbulent structures of the planetary boundary layer . J. Atmos. Sci. , 35 , 1861 – 1883 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<1861:MTHEOT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<1861:MTHEOT>2.0.CO;2 Banta , R

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K. Shafer Smith

variations of these parameters, the results can be extrapolated to the globe. On can criticize the relevance of this approach to planetary circulation from the outset as being far too simplified, but it nevertheless addresses the problem of the interaction of parameters of the large scale circulation ( β, λ, drag and energy generation) not yet explored, and so the simplicity of the geometry might be considered a prerequisite for this study. In section 2 we derive a criterion necessary for the

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Akira Kasahara and Pedro L. da Silva Dias

15 SEPTEMBER 1986 AKIRA KASAHARA AND PEDRO L. DA SILVA DIAS1893Response of Planetary Waves to Stationary Tropical Heating in a Global Atmosphere with Meridional and Vertical ShearAIURA KASAHARANational Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, CO 80307PEDRO L. DA SILVA DIASDepartment of Meteorology, Institute ofAstronomy and Geophysics, University of SZo Paulo, 0100O-Scio Paulo, Brazil(Manuscript received 14 October 1985, in final form 7 March 1986)ABSTRACTThe response of planetary

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J. R. Holton and W. M. Wehrbein

1968 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME37The Role of Forced Planetary Waves in the Annual Cycle of the Zonal Mean Circulation of the Middle Atmosphere~ J. R. HOLTON AND W. M. WEtn~-1~Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 20 February 1980,in final form 21 May 1980) ABSTRACT The annual cycle of

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Ronnie Leeper, Rezaul Mahmood, and Arturo I. Quintanar

. , Leeper R. , and Quintanar A. I. , 2011 : Sensitivity of planetary boundary layer atmosphere to historical and future changes of land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture in western Kentucky, USA . Global Planet. Change , 78 , 36 – 53 , doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.05.007 . McCumber, M. C. , and Pielke R. A. , 1981 : Simulation of the effects of surface fluxes of heat and moisture in a mesoscale numerical model . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 9929 – 9938 . McPherson, R. A

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D. Rind, R. Suozzo, and N. K. Balachandran

I FEBRUARY 1988 D. RIND, R. SUOZZO AND N. K. BALACHANDRAN 371The GISS Global Climate-Middle Atmosphere Model. Part II: Model Variability Due toInteractions between Planetary Waves, the Mean Circulation and Gravity Wave DragD. RIND, R. SUOZZO,* AND N. K. BALACHANDRAN**Goddard Space Flight Center, Institute for Space Studies, New York, N. Y,(Manuscript received 3 April 1987, in final form 20 April 1987)ABSTRACT The

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Nicholas G. Heavens, David M. Kass, James H. Shirley, Sylvain Piqueux, and Bruce A. Cantor

planetary dust events: 1) solar radiation absorbed by dust heats the atmosphere and increases the saturation vapor pressure at higher altitudes; 2) atmospheric heating by dust increases equator–pole temperature contrast and strengthens the planetary-scale mean meridional circulation, enhancing mixing between the equator and the pole (and presumably vertical mixing in the ascending and descending branches of the circulation); 3) localized deep convection driven by the solar heating of dust ( Rafkin 2012

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Christopher Lee and Mark Ian Richardson

temperature but not pressure, as defined in Crisp (1986) , and that gravity varies as where g * is the gravitational acceleration at the surface (8.87 m s −2 ), R is the planetary radius (6041 km, assumed to be a sphere), and z is the layer altitude. Fig . 4. Globally averaged fluxes and heating rates calculated for the temperature and composition profile given in Figs. 2 and 3 . IR fluxes refer to atmosphere-only fluxes; solar fluxes refer to radiation from the simulated sun. Both IR and solar

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