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Yuling Wu and Bo-Wen Shen

Wheeler M. C. , 2008 : Some space–time spectral analyses of tropical convection and planetary-scale waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 2936 – 2948 , doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2675.1 . Hopsch, S. B. , Thorncroft C. D. , Hodges K. , and Aiyyer A. , 2007 : West African storm tracks and their relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclones . J. Climate , 20 , 2468 – 2483 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI4139.1 . Hopsch, S. B. , Thorncroft C. D. , and Tyle K. R. , 2010 : Analysis of African easterly wave

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Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne, Mustapha Meftah, Sergey Khaykin, Chantal Claud, and Pierre Simoneau

horizontal and vertical resolutions and a viewing window that limits the local time of observations. The analyses of daily-scale atmospheric fluctuations associated for example with planetary waves are potentially contaminated by the nonmigrating diurnal tides. The distortion in the analysis of planetary waves due to the tidal contamination was found to be of the same magnitude to the impact of noise in the data averaging over space and time ( Zhang et al. 2006 ). The diurnal solar tide is one of the

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P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, and M. L. Chanin

tidar. .I. Geophys. Res.. 96, 7579-7587.Haltdorson, T., and J. Langerholc, 1978: Geometrical form factors for the tidar function. Appl. Opt., ]17, 240-244.IIansen, G~, M. Serwazi, and U. Van Zahn, 1989: First detection of noctiluccnt cloud by planetary waves in the stratosphere. Geo ph.vs. Res. Left., 16, t445-1448.Itauchecorne, A., and M. L. Chanin, 1980: Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 35 and 70 km. Geophys. Res. Lett., 7, 565-568. , and --., 1982: Mid

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Changsheng Chen, R. C. Beardsley, Song Hu, Qichun Xu, and Huichan Lin

tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX and Artic air-mass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 112 , 693 – 709 . Blackadar, A K. , 1976 : Modeling the nocturnal boundary layer. Preprints,. Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Quality, Raleigh, NC, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 46–49 . Blackadar, A K. , 1979 : High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, J. Pfafflin and E. Ziegler, Eds., Vol. 1, Gordon and Breach, 50

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Phillip B. Chilson, Tian-You Yu, Richard G. Strauch, Andreas Muschinski, and Robert D. Palmer

temperature field. J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 237 – 248 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<0237:DEOITA>2.0.CO;2 Eaton, F. D. , McLaughlin S. A. , and Hines J. R. , 1995 : A new frequency-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology. Radio Sci. , 30 , 75 – 88 . 10.1029/94RS01937 Franke, S. J. , 1990 : Pulse compression and frequency domain interferometry with a frequency-hopped MST radar. Radio Sci. , 25 , 565 – 574 . 10.1029/RS025i004p00565 Gage, K. S. , and

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C. G. Helmis, C. Jacovides, D. N. Asimakopoulos, and H. A. Flocas

the much warmer land, producing changes in the surface heat fluxes. Thus, the developed flow over the coastal region combines features of the local marine boundary layer (MBL) and the thermally induced local flows. Observations of the marine atmosphere structure, performed by Mandics and Owens (1975) and Gaynor and Mandics (1978) , revealed the existence of a rich variety in the vertical structure associated with temperature inversions that were often perturbed by gravity waves or wind shear

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Kyosuke Hamazu, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Toshio Wakayama, Tomoya Matsuda, Richard J. Doviak, and Shoichiro Fukao

Agency. The 50-MHz MU radar belongs to and is operated by the Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere of Kyoto University. Thanks to Dr. Margaret Doviak for editing the manuscript. REFERENCES Doviak, R. J. , and Berger M. , 1980 : Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer resolved by dual-Doppler radars. Radio Sci. , 15 , 297 – 317 . 10.1029/RS015i002p00297 Doviak, R. J. , and Zrnic D. S. , 1993 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2d ed

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Ben B. Balsley, Lakshmi Kantha, and William Colgan

for examining the small-scale details that contain important information on the source of locally generated turbulence (e.g., small-scale gravity waves, frontal passages, and local wind gusts). The need for improved vertical resolution in atmospheric measurements has been met from time to time by mounting specialized campaigns. During these periods, radiosonde data are archived at much higher (1–2 s) sampling rates. Examples of such campaigns include the Fronts and Atlantic Storm Tracks Experiment

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J. C. Muccino, H. Luo, H. G. Arango, D. Haidvogel, J. C. Levin, A. F. Bennett, B. S. Chua, G. D. Egbert, B. D. Cornuelle, A. J. Miller, E. Di Lorenzo, A. M. Moore, and E. D. Zaron

within the framework of a single model. ADCIRC-2D uses linear interpolation on triangular elements and a wave equation formulation of the shallow-water equations. SEOM-2D uses higher-order interpolation on quadrilateral elements in conjunction with the standard formulation of the shallow-water equations. It offers dual approaches to achieving convergence: algebraic (elemental grid refinement) and exponential (increase in the order of intraelement interpolation). a. The scientific applications of the

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P. W. Rosenkranz, K. D. Hutchison, K. R. Hardy, and M. S. Davis

therefore have larger passband widths and better sensitivity. The largest error component in Figs. 3 and 4 is the null-space error. However, this presentation may be overly pessimistic because it includes any deviation from the ideal of an exact reproduction of the true profile of temperature at each level. A retrieval of this type produces a smoothed version of the true profile, and for some purposes, such as the detection of atmospheric planetary waves (e.g., Austen et al. 1976 ), this vertical

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