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J. Ian Stewart and Charles T. Hash

APRIL 1982 J. IAN STEWART AND CHARLES T. HASH 477Impact of Weather Analysis on Agricultural Production and Planning Decisions for the Semiarid Areas of Kenya~ J. IAN STEWARTUnited States Department of Agriculture/United States Agency for International Development, Kenya Agriculture Research Institute, Muguga, Kenya CHARLES T. HASHUnited States Agency

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Robert B. Lee III, Bruce R. Barkstrom, G. Louis Smith, John E. Cooper, Leonard P. Kopia, R. Wes Lawrence, Susan Thomas, Dhirendra K. Pandey, and Dominique A. H. Crommelynck

shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight andin-flight calibration approaches.1. Introduction This paper describes the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor design, in-flightcalibration systems and procedures, and preflight calibration plans for converting the CERES sensors outputsignals into earth-reflected solar and earth

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Christine J. Kirchhoff, Scott E. Kalafatis, Donald Scavia, and Richard B. Rood

1990s to both produce and broker climate information, the RISA program has been hailed as one of the most successful climate science boundary organizations in the United States ( Dilling and Lemos 2011 ; Feldman and Ingram 2009 ; McNie 2013 ; NRC 2010 ). At present, 11 RISAs serve a diverse range of climate information users (e.g., water managers, farmers, city managers and planners, forest managers, energy producers, public health managers) by supporting better planning for and in response to

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Paul J. Kocin, David A. Olson, Arthur C. Wick, and Robert D. Harner

impacting thepreparation of surface analyses at NMC, some preliminary steps that are being taken to improve and modernize the procedures necessary for analysis, as well assome plans for the future. A brief overview of the recenthistory of surface analysis at NMC is presented in section 2. Current procedures are described in section 3,as well as a summary of current problems and controversies. In section 4, a brief discussion of the capabilitiesof one workstation being designed to help produce thesurface

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Susan Frankenstein, Maria Stevens, and Constance Scott

the latest analyses or forecasts through influence of assimilated information on model state evolution) and the resolution dilemma. This is how we plan on eventually using the SMAP products. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in mobility predictions in data-sparse and/or denied areas when using the current Noah LIS–based soil moisture climatology method of Baylot et al. (2013) versus using simulated SMAP combined soil moisture products directly. To do this, we first compare

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Hui Shao, John Derber, Xiang-Yu Huang, Ming Hu, Kathryn Newman, Donald Stark, Michael Lueken, Chunhua Zhou, Louisa Nance, Ying-Hwa Kuo, and Barbara Brown

to extend its 4D data assimilation capability through inclusion of the hybrid 4D–EnVar approach ( Kleist and Ide 2012 ) with plans to apply this technique to the upcoming GFS implementation scheduled for 2016 ( Tallapragada 2015 ). As for other operational models and systems, a sustained development effort is granted to GSI within the research teams that support operational applications (therefore mostly considered to be “internal” teams to operational centers). High priority is given to

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Nathalie Voisin, Alan F. Hamlet, L. Phil Graham, David W. Pierce, Tim P. Barnett, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

summer is much more dependent on potential savings associated with meeting extreme peak demands at shorter time scales than in meeting average demands on monthly time scales. b. Natural gas planning applications ENSO and PDO forecasts probably have their clearest energy-related applications for forecasting natural gas markets in CA, because in warm ENSO and/or warm PDO years there is typically little surplus electric power available from the PNW and CA would have to rely largely on conventional

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

such, this knowledge does not always conform to “standard” westernized scientific formats, thus making scientific analysis difficult (e.g., Mackinson 2001 ). Regardless, indigenous knowledge continues to play a significant role in the modern world. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in indigenous knowledge in areas such as disaster risk reduction and planning (e.g., Mercer et al. 2007 ; Cutter et al. 2012 ), and it is now recognized as an important knowledge system for decision

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Elizabeth L. Malone

taking up the issue include the U.S. military (e.g., QDR 2010 ; CNA 2007 ) and intelligence community (e.g., NIC 2009 , 2008a , b ; Burke and Parthemore 2008 ). Numerous studies and reports have found cause for concern and for incorporating climate changes into military and intelligence foresight and planning. Analyses now commonly use the terms “energy security,” “water security,” “food security,” and “climate security,” reflecting the recognition that these issues affect national and

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Juergen Weichselgartner and Berit Arheimer

as national adaptation plans (NAP), nationally determined contributions (NDCs), and the Nairobi work program (NWP) ( UNFCCC 2015 , 2018 ). Scientific studies have highlighted barriers between producers and users of climate information ( Moser and Ekstrom 2010 ; Dilling and Lemos 2011 ; Lemos et al. 2012 ; Biesbroek et al. 2013 ; McNie 2013 ), while climate service prototypes have been developed and analyzed to distill lessons learnt ( Brasseur and Gallardo 2016 ; Buontempo et al. 2018

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