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Usama Anber, Shuguang Wang, and Adam Sobel

1. Introduction Surface turbulent heat fluxes and electromagnetic radiation are the most important sources of moist static energy (or moist entropy) to the atmosphere. In the idealized state of radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE), the source due to surface fluxes must balance the sink due to radiative cooling (negative radiative heating). In this state, the surface evaporation and precipitation also balance, and there is no large-scale circulation. In a more realistic situation in which

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

et al. 2009 ; Parding et al. 2011 ; Miller et al. 2012 ; Collow et al. 2016a ). These studies have produced either heating rate profiles or “bulk” measurements of the net radiative heating of the column, using the vertical cross-atmosphere radiative flux divergence (RFD). The RFD is presented in watts per meter squared and is defined so that net fluxes at the surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are a positive quantity when there is net radiation transfer into the column. This sign

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Konstantin Loukachine and Norman G. Loeb

1. Introduction The objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to provide global radiative flux estimates at several levels from ground to the top of the atmosphere (TOA) together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties in order to improve our under-standing of how clouds and aerosols affect climate ( Wielicki et al. 1995 ). To achieve these goals, broadband satellite radiance measurements from CERES are combined with radiances from a high

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Richard Bintanja

FESRU^R- 1996 B I N T A N J A 439The Parameterization of Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes for Use in Zonally Averaged Climate Models RICHARD BINTANJAInstitute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands(Manuscript received 18 November 1994, in final form 15 August 1995) ABSTRACT The

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Lee E. Branscome and Enda O'Brien

15FEBRUARY 1988 LEE E. BRANSCOME AND ENDA O'BRIEN 645Feedbacks between Eddy Heat Fluxes and Radiative Heating in an Energy-Balance Model LEE E. BRANSCOME AND' ENDA O'BRIEN University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Florida (Manuscript received 12 November 1986, in final form 20 August 1987) ABSTRACT The

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Kathryn L. Verlinden and Simon P. de Szoeke

retrievals based on cloud radar is limited to specifically nonprecipitating clouds ( Papatsoris 1994 ; Fox and Illingworth 1997 ). Our aim is to model physically accurate radiative fluxes within stratocumulus clouds observed over the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Prior studies have used observations and models to study the impact of uncertainties when measuring cloud properties and to compare various retrieval methods of cloud radiative forcing and heating rate profiles ( Comstock et al. 2013

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Jackie C. May, Clark Rowley, and Charlie N. Barron

1. Introduction The ocean surface heat budget is determined by the shortwave and longwave radiative heat fluxes and the latent and sensible turbulent heat fluxes. Accurate representation of each of these flux components is important in quantifying and understanding the heating and cooling of the ocean surface, which impacts subsurface features such as the mixed-layer and sonic-layer depths and atmospheric features such as stability and convection. Obtaining reliable surface flux measurements

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G. Guo and J. A. Coakley Jr.

1. Introduction The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) has, as one of its goals, estimating surface radiative fluxes ( Wielicki et al. 1996 ). Estimates from CERES rely on a mix of broadband radiances, which are obtained from the CERES radiometers on the Terra and Aqua satellites; high-spatial-resolution multispectral imagery, obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); analyzed meteorological

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Karen M. Shell, Simon P. de Szoeke, Michael Makiyama, and Zhe Feng

). Decreased outgoing longwave radiation associated with deep cold convective clouds represents an anomalous source of column MSE. Reflection of solar radiation by the clouds is a sink of MSE, cancelling about half of the longwave effect. The radiative feedback of clouds to atmospheric column-integrated MSE is key for the maintenance of MSE anomalies associated with the MJO, with local sensible and latent surface fluxes perhaps playing a lesser role ( Sobel et al. 2014 ). In this study, we examine high

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H. M. J. Barbosa, T. A. Tarasova, and I. F. A. Cavalcanti

measurements ( Wild et al. 1995 ; Wild and Ohmura 1999 ; Wild 2005 ) and satellite-derived surface solar radiative fluxes ( Cess et al. 1995 ; Li et al. 1997 ; Cusack et al. 1998 ; Tarasova and Cavalcanti 2002 ). If the systematic errors in the global net surface insolation from GCMs are reduced or eliminated, the effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulations are substantial ( Kiehl 1994 ). For instance, an increase in shortwave absorption in the tropical atmosphere by 25 W m −2 enhances the

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