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Walt McKeown and Richard Leighton

interactions on larger scales (>1 km). Estimating the relative contributions of these parameters to the total flux is a subject of ongoing research. Since the current measurement methods for air–sea heat flux are valid over spatial scales that are relatively large compared to waves, it is especially difficult to isolate the contribution of capillary and gravity waves to total air–sea heat flux. All current heat flux measurements use parameters measured “alongside” the interface rather than at the interface

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Margaret M. Wonsick, Rachel T. Pinker, Wen Meng, and Louis Nguyen

1. Introduction Information on surface radiative fluxes is needed in climate change research ( Garrat et al. 1993 ; Wild et al. 1995 ), hydrological applications ( Ohmura and Wild 2002 ; Sorooshian et al. 2002 ; Mitchell et al. 2004 ), mesoscale weather prediction ( Yucel et al. 2002 , 2003 ), and oceanic applications ( Sui et al. 2003 ; Baumgartner and Anderson 1999 ). To obtain the spatial and temporal coverage desired for these applications, observations from geostationary satellites

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R. Philipona, A. Kräuchi, G. Romanens, G. Levrat, P. Ruppert, E. Brocard, P. Jeannet, D. Ruffieux, and B. Calpini

errors on temperature sensors to the radiative fluxes. We further show an experimental method allowing direct measurements of the radiation error by using several thermocouples on the same sonde, which simultaneously measure air temperature under sun-shaded and unshaded conditions. The new radiation error correction is then applied to the SRS-C34 radiosonde, and we use the data of the 2010 WMO intercomparison to analyze and compare night and day measurement differences between the SRS-C34 and the 10

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Elizabeth C. Kent and Peter K. Taylor

-surface humidity should be calculated from theobserved wet- and dry-bulb temperatures, whereas the dry-bulb temperature should be corrected for radiationinduced errors before calculation of the atmospheric stability or the sensible heat flux.1. Introduction The conclusions of Kent et al. (1993a, hereafterK93) on the effect of solar radiative errors in marineair temperature measurements on the turbulent fluxesof sensible and latent heat were questioned by Hoeber(1995, hereafter H95). This note provides

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Richard Hucek, Larry Stowe, and Robert Joyce

VOLVM~ 13vations of coincident hourly ERB fluxes and other climate variables over diurnal periods may lend insightinto radiative feedback processes governing climate response over yearly and decadal timescales (Ramanathan et al. 1989). Although already shown to be useful in climate diagnostic and monitoring activities (Lan and Chan1983, 1986; Chelliah and Arkin 1992; Slingo 1987),greater use of ERB measurements can be made whenthe accuracy of the data is known to meet user requirements. The data

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Robin W. Pascal and Simon A. Josey

SW ↓, (4) where λ is a shortwave correction factor and SW ↓ is the downwelling shortwave flux. We note that there has been some discussion over the processes responsible for the flux associated with the dome–body temperature difference. Albrecht and Cox (1977) originally suggested that it is a purely radiative flux and defined k to be the ratio of the dome interior emissivity to its transmissivity from exterior to interior. However, Foot (1986) notes that if this is the

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Sébastien P. Bigorre, Robert A. Weller, James B. Edson, and Jonathan D. Ware

saturation specific humidity at the ambient temperature and pressure. Therefore, the relative error in the latent heat flux can be written The momentum stress error is where S = U − U s . Finally, the errors in the net longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes are as in Colbo and Weller (2009) as shown: where ↓ Q LW and ↓ Q SW represent the downwelling (i.e., measured) components of the longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes, respectively; ɛ is emissivity; is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant; and is

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Andrei Natarov and Peter Müller

diss is estimated from a steady-state version of the internal wave energy balance. It is assumed that the generation region at low wavenumbers is well separated from the dissipation region at high wavenumbers. In steady state, there must then be a constant flux of energy F 0 through vertical wavenumber ( m ) space from the generation region at small wavenumbers to the dissipation region at high wavenumbers (see Fig. 1 ). This flux is assumed to be maintained by nonlinear interactions among the

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Rommel C. Zulueta, Walter C. Oechel, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Steven J. Hastings, Beniamino Gioli, William T. Lawrence, and Kyaw Tha Paw U

1. Introduction A ubiquitous problem in carbon cycle science is one of adequate sampling, both in time and in space, to infer processes and annual budgets. This problem is typified by the difficulty in determining representative plot and tower measurements that can be extrapolated to larger landscapes and regions ( Desai et al. 2008 ). Understanding the processes and controls in carbon flux enough to make predictions because of climate change are often done at the ecosystem level

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Shoji Asano, Masataka Shiobara, Yuji Nakanishi, and Yukiharu Miyake

extensive calculations of the observational angledependence and scattering phase-function dependenceof reflected radiance can be avoided. On the other hand,the spatial resolution of the flux measurement may belower than that of the radiance measurement, becausethe upward radiative flux reflected by clouds is composed of radiation scattered from a wider cloud region. We have developed a spectral radiometer systemwith easy handling in airborne and ground-based use.c 1995 American Meteorological Society

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