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Barbara Früh, Hendrik Feldmann, Hans-Jürgen Panitz, Gerd Schädler, Daniela Jacob, Philip Lorenz, and Klaus Keuler

1. Introduction Although climate change occurs on the global scale, its impact varies substantially on local and regional scales ( Good and Lowe 2006 ). Climate projections studying the effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations are typically provided by global circulation models (GCMs). Since the resolution of the GCMs is rather coarse, the results need to be scaled down to a smaller scale with a higher degree of detail ( Giorgi and Mearns 1999 ). This transfer can be achieved, for

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Kristen J. Guirguis and Roni Avissar

analysis of simulation results for each unique precipitation climate in the western United States is likely to lend insight into model strengths and weaknesses as well as into the study of local weather or climate characteristics or land-atmosphere feedback. A useful approach for regionalizing a spatial domain into subdomains based on local precipitation climatology is principal component analysis (PCA). Many studies have used PCA and related eigen techniques to identify patterns of precipitation

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Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Jason P. Evans, and Ronald B. Smith

University–NCAR (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) regional climate model was used to isolate the atmospheric effects of heating on the Zagros Plateau. The model was implemented in a “control” mode designed to produce realistic simulations of the region and in a “mountain snow” mode in which the Zagros Plateau was assigned a bright, “snowlike” albedo that neutralized surface heat fluxes. These numerical experiments are described in section 2 . Section 3 summarizes the results of MM5 simulations, with a

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Michael Notaro, Val Bennington, and Steve Vavrus

within a regional climate model and its impact on simulated climate . J. Climate , 27 , 2886 – 2911 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00110.1 . Blumberg , A. F. , and D. M. Di Toro , 1990 : Effects of climate warming on dissolved oxygen concentrations in Lake Erie . Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. , 119 , 210 – 223 , doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1990)119<0210:EOCWOD>2.3.CO;2 . Burnett , A. W. , M. E. Kirby , H. T. Mullins , and W. P. Patterson , 2003 : Increasing Great Lake–effect snowfall during

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Shakeel Asharaf and Bodo Ahrens

during the monsoon season is mainly concentrated in the lower part of the atmosphere. The simulation domain for the CCLM_B1 experiment encompassed approximately 8°S–45°N and 31°–114°E ( Dobler and Ahrens 2008 ), whereas CCLM_RCP and CCLM_CTL used the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) South Asia domain for the model integrations. These two domains entirely covered the whole Indian subcontinent. While the different domain sizes may have had an effect, such effects are likely

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Faye T. Cruz, Andrew J. Pitman, John L. McGregor, and Jason P. Evans

. Modeling studies have examined the contribution of this physiological feedback in projections of the global climate. Simulations in which the stomatal resistance is doubled show that the suppression of transpiration leads to a global mean increase in temperature with effects on rainfall and soil moisture ( Pollard and Thompson 1995 ; Henderson-Sellers et al. 1995 ; Martin et al. 1999 ). Inclusion of the physiological forcing also offsets the enhanced evapotranspiration that would have resulted if

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Anupam Hazra, B. N. Goswami, and Jen-Ping Chen

present study, we propose a hypothesis regarding how invigoration takes place in BFA and not in BNFA in the background of large-scale monsoon environment and demonstrate the veracity of the hypothesis using a series of experiments with a high-resolution regional climate model. The hypothesis is illustrated in the schematic Fig. 1 . We recognize that all breaks are generally dry. However, higher concentration of aerosols make the environment dirty during BFA cases while lesser aerosol concentrations

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Michael Notaro, Azar Zarrin, Steve Vavrus, and Val Bennington

, G. P. Byrd , and D. Schleede , 1998 : Mescoscale model simulation of the 4–5 January 1995 lake-effect snowstorm . Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 893 – 920 . Bates , G. T. , F. Giorgi , and S. W. Hostetler , 1993 : Toward the simulation of the effects of the Great Lakes on regional climate . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 1373 – 1387 . Bates , G. T. , S. W. Hostetler , and F. Giorgi , 1995 : Two-year simulation of the Great Lakes region with a coupled modeling system . Mon. Wea

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Romain Marteau, Vincent Moron, and Nathalie Philippon

1981 ; D’Amato and Lebel 1998 ; Laurent et al. 1998 ; Mathon et al. 2002 ). The timing of the start of the rainy season is crucial for deciding when to plant crops ( Sivakumar 1992 ). This is of particular importance for the Sahelian belt where the economy is mostly based on rain-fed agriculture, with a weak capacity to mitigate adverse effects of interannual variability of rainfall ( Ingram et al. 2002 ). In that context, any reliable prediction of the local-scale onset date would be of a great

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Miao Yu, Jorge González, Shiguang Miao, and Prathap Ramamurthy

1. Introduction The world’s population is increasingly urbanized, and much of the urbanization occurs in developing countries ( Haub 2010 ). Land-use change and anthropogenic heat emissions induced by urbanization have been recognized as important factors that have serious impacts on climate at regional scales ( Li et al. 2004 ; Li et al. 2013 ; Roth 2007 ). There is ample evidence indicating that the regional climate effect of urbanization is significant ( Kalnay and Cai 2003 ; Kalnay et al

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