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Juliette Blanchet and Victor Mélèse

of the region. This result emphasizes the merit of using high-resolution radar data rather than a sparser rain gauge network. Despite a significant progress brought in the area of rainfall severity assessment, a limitation of the present study is that the considered spatial scales of aggregation, which are squared, do not coincide with the hydrological risk that depends on the shape of watershed over which rainfall accumulates. An improvement of this study will be to consider the severity over

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John T. Allen, Michael K. Tippett, Yasir Kaheil, Adam H. Sobel, Chiara Lepore, Shangyao Nong, and Andreas Muehlbauer

; Changnon 1977 ; Nelson and Young 1979 ; Cox and Armstrong 1981 ; Cheng et al. 1985 ; Sánchez et al. 1996 ; Heymsfield et al. 2014 ; Brown et al. 2015 ). These elements present an important part of the potential for economic losses to agriculture and property. The significance of large hail to the country motivates an analysis of just how large hailstones can get over the United States, leveraging both climatology and extrapolation of the likelihood of large hail. To explore the spatial risk

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Sigalit Berkovic

characterization at 0000 UTC, two calculations are performed: the first according to the class defined at the previous 1200 UTC and the second according to the next 1200 UTC. The calculations showed similar results, except under L W . Hence, the synoptic class is a predictor of the hourly surface winds during the year. These results enable an automatic prediction of hourly surface winds according to synoptic class. They may aid in risk assessment, in statistical downscaling of seasonal or monthly winds, or in

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David Changnon and Stanley A. Changnon

snow). Instead of simply reacting to untimely climate conditions or natural hazards, new climate-assessment products allow for informed planning either to lessen losses before they occur or to enhance profits. The major user sectors now include the insurance industry, utility firms, and weather-sensitive businesses, including agribusiness, transportation firms, retail businesses, and the construction industry. In defining risks, historical climate data are integrated with various weather

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Carolina Neri and Víctor Magaña

. Conclusions are given in section 5 . 2. Conceptual framework a. Vulnerability and risk assessment Various methodologies have been proposed to characterize and evaluate vulnerability in the disaster risk and climate change fields ( Downing 1990 ; Cutter 1996 ; Turner et al. 2003 ; UNDP 2004 ; Luers 2005 ; Eakin and Luers 2006 ; Cardona et al. 2012 ). Most approaches are based on the description of the socioeconomic factors that make a sector vulnerable ( Blaikie et al. 1994 ; Cutter et al. 2000

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R. H. Moss, S. Avery, K. Baja, M. Burkett, A. M. Chischilly, J. Dell, P. A. Fleming, K. Geil, K. Jacobs, A. Jones, K. Knowlton, J. Koh, M. C. Lemos, J. Melillo, R. Pandya, T. C. Richmond, L. Scarlett, J. Snyder, M. Stults, A. M. Waple, J. Whitehead, D. Zarrilli, B. M. Ayyub, J. Fox, A. Ganguly, L. Joppa, S. Julius, P. Kirshen, R. Kreutter, A. McGovern, R. Meyer, J. Neumann, W. Solecki, J. Smith, P. Tissot, G. Yohe, and R. Zimmerman

and community values in decision-making. And they highlight the need for additional research and assessment to improve options and knowledge to support implementation. For many communities, the challenge is to incorporate information about climate change and policies into planning economic opportunities, improving social welfare, updating infrastructure, protecting water resources, or conserving natural environments. Others need to manage overt climate threats—reducing risks of calamitous

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Julie L. Demuth, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, and Craig Trumbo

1. Introduction The atmosphere has little long-term memory of past hurricanes that have affected an area, but people do. Indeed, people’s past experiences with a hazard are important for shaping how they recognize and develop judgments about a future risk, which can influence their responses to the threat ( Weinstein 1989 ; Renn 2008 ; Wachinger et al. 2013 ). Past experience therefore is commonly measured in studies of risks, including weather hazards such as hurricanes ( Weinstein 1989

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Toby R. Ault, Julia E. Cole, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Gregory T. Pederson, and David M. Meko

greenhouse gases (GHG) ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). The risk of future prolonged drought risk will therefore depend on the internal rate at which these events occur as well as any GHG-forced changes in their underlying statistics. In the U.S. Southwest, for instance, precipitation is projected to decrease as a consequence of GHG-forced changes (e.g., Seager et al. 2007 ; Solomon et al. 2007 ; Diffenbaugh and Giorgi 2012 ). Any assessment of future megadrought risk, therefore, should account for both the

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Claire Cambardella, Brian D. Fath, Andrea Werdenigg, Christian Gulas, and Harald Katzmair

described in the methods. Each study has operationalized CT to identify risk perceptions of climate change, climate change policy preferences, or both, of the cultural solidarities. These measures were used to assess the predictive validity of CT. The overall construct of CT was also tested in most of the surveys by having respondents rank statements about cultural worldviews, environmental issues, and/or climate change. These measures were used to assess face and content validity. Assessment ratings

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Alexander G. Keul, Bernhard Brunner, John Allen, Katie A. Wilson, Mateusz Taszarek, Colin Price, Gary Soleiman, Sanjay Sharma, Partha Roy, Mat Said Aini, Abu Bakar Elistina, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir, and Chandima Gomes

-cognitive theories, like protection motivation theory (PMT; Rogers 1975 ) or theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1985 ), take into account influences of communities or social reference groups on individual behavior. In the realm of cognitive-behavioral theories, prospect theory has noted a greater fear of losses than hope for potential gains ( Kahneman and Tversky 1979 ). Subjective risk assessment of technology risks ( Slovic 2000 ) is guided by availability; that is, easily imagined and remembered risks

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