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Rui Sun, Xueqin Zhang, Yang Sun, Du Zheng, and Klaus Fraedrich

1. Introduction The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the main water source for several major rivers in Asia and for large amounts of lakes, glaciers, permafrost areas, and wetlands ( Shen and Chen 1996 ; Luosang 2005 ). The alpine glaciers and inland lakes are key indicators of climatic change because their expansion or contraction reflects changes of water and heat balance conditions in mountainous regions ( Shi and Ren 1990 ). With the significant warming over the plateau during the past decades

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William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and James McNamara

the atmosphere, relatively little research has considered the impact of initial land surface snow conditions in the context of numerical weather prediction or coupled land–atmosphere modeling. In this study, we develop a suite of numerical experiments to examine how initial land surface snow conditions [both the snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered area (SCA)] control subsequent land surface forcings during both ambient conditions and weather consistent with an atmospheric river (AR

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Rasool Porhemmat, Heather Purdie, Peyman Zawar-Reza, Christian Zammit, and Tim Kerr

1. Introduction In midlatitudes a sizeable fraction of moisture is transported through atmospheric rivers (AR) ( Neiman et al. 2008a ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). ARs are narrow channels of enhanced water vapor within the atmosphere that are responsible for most horizontal transport of moisture outside of the tropics ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2019 ). In the hydrometeorological literature, other terms such as warm conveyor belt (WCB) and tropical moisture exports (TMEs) are also used to

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W. Paul Miller and Thomas C. Piechota

1. Introduction The upper Colorado River basin (see Fig. 1 ) serves Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico and exists within a supply-driven environment; that is, water resources and supplies are primarily governed by seasonal snowpack and streamflow events. California, Arizona, and Nevada rely on water resources delivered from the lower Colorado River basin within a demand-driven framework. The inflow to the system is nearly constant and governed by water released from the upper Colorado

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Julian Brimelow, Kit Szeto, Barrie Bonsal, John Hanesiak, Bohdan Kochtubajda, Fraser Evans, and Ronald Stewart

1. Introduction During the spring and summer of 2011, the Assiniboine River basin (ARB; Fig. 1 ) in Canada experienced an unprecedented and devastating flood. The flood was exceptional in terms of both the volume of water and its longevity, and it was rated as Canada’s number one weather event for 2011 ( Phillips 2012 ). Fig . 1. Location of the ARB (red boundary) study area. Locations of stream gauges and cities are shown by colored symbols. Numbers represent the Assiniboine River (1), Qu

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Jamie Dyer

convective precipitation ( Boyles et al. 2007 ; Koch and Ray 1997 ). Similar soil contrasts, along with distinct vegetation boundaries, exist within the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley in northwest Mississippi (known locally as the Mississippi Delta), and results from Dyer (2008) indicate that precipitation patterns in and around the Mississippi Delta may be influenced by distinct horizontal boundaries in soil type and/or land cover. In addition, studies have shown that abnormal temperature

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Yanan Duan and Sanjiv Kumar

initialization) contributes most to streamflow forecast skill in the mountain area basins in the northwest United States. For example, snow water storage is the dominant source of predictability in the Columbia River basin ( Mahanama et al. 2012 ). Similarly, Orth and Seneviratne (2013a) found that the initial snow condition is a major contributor to streamflow forecast skill in high-altitude catchment (>2000-m elevation) in Switzerland. However, there are a limited number of studies that have investigated

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, and Witold F. Krajewski

1. Introduction This study centers on analyses of three floods in the Delaware River basin ( Fig. 1 ) that occurred in 2004–06 ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). The three floods represent three major flood agents in the eastern United States ( Miller 1990 ): landfalling tropical cyclones (September 2004; Hurricane Ivan); winter–spring extratropical systems (April 2005); and warm-season convective systems (June 2006). We combine analyses of the 2004–06 flood events with analyses of annual flood peak

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Vicente Barros, Lucas Chamorro, Genaro Coronel, and Julián Baez

1. Introduction The Paraguay River is the most important tributary of the Paraná River and one of the main constituents of La Plata basin, the fifth largest basin in the world. The area of the Paraguay River basin exceeds 1 million km 2 and includes the Pantanal, a huge and flat wetland of 140 000 km 2 ( Fig. 1 ). The Pantanal wetland is a great complex of inundated floodplains. This region, one of the largest wetlands of the world, is widely recognized for its ecological importance and its

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Dinh Thi Lan Anh and Filipe Aires

1. Introduction River discharge (RD) estimation is important for both scientific (e.g., water cycle analysis, land/ocean freshwater exchanges) and operational reasons (e.g., flood risk, water management). Unfortunately, the number of publicly available in situ measurement stations has decreased in recent decades ( Wahl et al. 1995 ), in particular in developing countries. This is a major drawback for hydrology because in addition to being direct, continuous, and potentially very precise

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