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Douglas M. Leahey and James P. Friend

, (1957), 365 pp.Sheppard, P. A., 1958: The effect of pollution on radiation in the atmosphere. Intern. f. Air Water Pollution, 1, 31-43.Sundborg, A., 1950: Local climatological studies of the tempera ture conditions in an urban area. Tellus, 2, 222-232.U. S. Department of Commerce, 1960: Surface water temperature and salinity Atlantic Coast, North and South America. Coast and Geodetic Survey Publ. 31-1.U. S, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1967: New York-New Jersey abatement

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Jason T. Ortegren, Paul A. Knapp, Justin T. Maxwell, William P. Tyminski, and Peter T. Soulé

. Climate , 19 , 6062 – 6067 . Polyakov , I. V. , U. S. Bhatt , H. L. Simmons , D. Walsh , J. E. Walsh , and X. Zhang , 2005 : Multidecadal variability of North Atlantic temperature and salinity during the twentieth century . J. Climate , 18 , 4562 – 4581 . Richman , M. B. , 1986 : Rotation of principal components . J. Climatol. , 6 , 293 – 335 . Rogers , J. C. , and J. S. M. Coleman , 2003 : Interactions between the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, El Niño/La Niña

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Eun-Han Kwon, Byung-Ju Sohn, Dong-Eon Chang, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, and Song Yang

found in Kummerow (1993) , Kummerow and Giglio (1994) , and Kummerow et al. (1996) . The surface emissivity over ocean is based on Lojou et al. (1994) to include the impact of roughness and foam, which are parameterized by surface wind and sea surface temperature. For the surface emissivity calculation over the ocean, salinity and surface wind speed are set 35 ppm and 5 m s −1 , respectively, and sea surface temperature is model provided. A 14% fraction of water surface emissivity is assumed to

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Kyung-Sup Shin, Phil E. Riba, and Gerald R. North

)(0.003 + 0.0048w).The emissivity of each facet to viewing angle was calculated by using the Fresnel formula and consideringthe area of each facet with respect to the viewing angle.By assuming a bivariate normal distribution of slopesin space, an effective emissivity, ~, in ( 1 ) could be calculated by weighting according to the frequency distribution. The dielectric constant of water was givenby Paris ( 1971 ) for sea water (3.5% salinity) and purewater. The Marshall Palmer raindrop size

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Paul R. Swan and In Young Lee

Joint Confer ence on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, Salt Lake City, AMS/APCA.Miyakoda, K., and A. Rosati, 1977: One-way nested grid models: The interface conditions and the numerical accuracy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 1092-1107.Russell, P. B., and E. E. Uthe, 1978: Acoustic sounder array for application to air pollution. Report, SRI International, Vol. III, Hourly digital depth and salinity data, National Science Foundation Grant AEN73-02918-A01, 45 pp. [NTIS TB 282065

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Ge Peng, Christopher N. K. Mooers, and Hans C. Graber

-MAN was established in the 1980s to provide surface atmospheric information (e.g., wind, pressure, air temperature), sea surface temperature, and other oceanic information (e.g., conductivity for salinity; wave height and period) at selected stations to meet the needs of forecasters who issue watches and warnings and to support studies of the Florida coastal ecology ( NDBC 1993 ; Bosart and Sprigg 1998 ). Eight stations are aligned along the east coast of south Florida (from Dry Tortugas to

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N. Reuge, P. Fede, J.-F. Berthoumieu, F. Foucoin, and O. Simonin

, RH remains 100% because the salted droplets have absorbed so much water during their fall that their salinity has become very low (i.e., the water activity in the solution is very close to 1); therefore, their ability to absorb water vapor has become insignificant. As already discussed in Reuge et al. (2015) , a characteristic time of water vapor diffusion in air can be estimated (by L 2 / D υ with L = 20 m), giving about 200 days. Therefore, the resaturation of the layer by water vapor

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A. W. Hogan

ScienceFoundation Department of Polar Programs underGrant DPP 7820668 and by NOAA-ERL-ARLGMCC under Grant NA79RAD00023. REFERENCES- ~ngstmm, Anders, 1961: Techniques of determining the turbidity of Ihe atmosphere. Tellus, 13, 214-223.Blanchard, D. C., 1969: The oceanic production rate of cloud nuclei. J. Rech. Atrnos., 4, 1-6. , and A. T. Spencer, 1964: Condensation nuclei and the crystallization of saline drops. J. Atrnos. Sci., 21, 182-186. , a:ad A. L. Woodcock, 1957: Bubble formation and

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Z. Levin, S. A. Yankofsky, D. Pardes, and N. Magal

-associatedfreezing nuclei active at -10-C or above was approximately equal to the number of cells. Regardless ofidentity, or how cultivated, cells were recovered fromcultures by centrifuging at 5000 x g at 4-C, resuspended in a volume of saline solution (9 g NaCI 1-~)equal to the volume of the original growth medium,again pelleted as previously mentioned, rapidly frozenin an acetone-dry ice mixture, and then sublimated todryness in a refrigerated Leybold lyophilizer at reducedpressure. The dry powder yield per liter of

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Limin Zhao and Fuzhong Weng

temperatures of 89 and 150 GHz at ice cloud bases T B ( z b , μ ) can be estimated using Eq. (13) with AMSU measurements at lower frequencies. However, the assumption was made that the brightness temperatures at lower frequencies are not affected by the presence of ice clouds. Note that the emissivity in Eq. (13) is a function of the surface temperature, wind speed, and salinity over oceans and is computed using a previously developed model ( Klein and Swift 1977 ; Stogryn 1972 ; Holinger 1971

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