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Ronald L. Brouwer, George P. Schramkowski, Yoeri M. Dijkstra, and Henk M. Schuttelaars

1. Introduction The fine sediment distribution in estuaries is strongly influenced by the effects of climate change, such as accelerated sea level rise and intensified river discharge (e.g., Scavia et al. 2002 ; Robins et al. 2016 ; Achete et al. 2017 ), and human interventions, such as land reclamation, channel deepening, and channelization (e.g., de Jonge 1983 ; Winterwerp and Wang 2013 ; de Jonge et al. 2014 ; van Maren et al. 2015 ). In turn, the sediment distribution impacts the

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L. H. LinHo, Xianglei Huang, and Ngar-Cheung Lau

distinctive transition in East Asia during spring, of which the SCSR onset is a prime example, may partially be attributed to the joint effects of MJO variability and the seasonal march. The SCSR onset is accompanied by a series of adjustments in both the tropics and higher latitudes. To delineate these changes, we subtract the composite of selected variables over the pentads −1 and −2 from the corresponding composite over the pentads +1 and +2. These differences in the observed streamline pattern and

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Amir Shabbar, Walter Skinner, and Mike D. Flannigan

amount of effort required to suppress a fire. The DSR is derived from daily measurements of precipitation, air temperature, humidity, and wind. The DSR, when averaged over a season, is termed the seasonal severity rating (SSR) index. The SSR can be used as an objective measure of the fire weather/climate from season to season and from region to region. On a routine basis, Natural Resources Canada (2009) uses SSR as a management tool for historical analysis as well as for operational long

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Dorian Speakman

Scottish Borders ( Archer et al. 2013 ). Trees and hedgerows have reduced runoff and erosion in arable farmland that was suffering increased problems of soil erosion in Norfolk in eastern England ( Evans 2006 ). By utilizing tree cover and soil conservation the above evidence points toward the benefits of agroecology in buffering the effects of adverse weather and harnessing those benefits for adaptation. c. Marginal lands in Britain: Adverse climates for agriculture The uplands and the north and west

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Shih-Yu Wang and Adam J. Clark

1. Introduction Seasonal precipitation exhibits a maximum center over the upper Midwest during midsummer (July–August). This precipitation center occurs in close association with the northward extension of the low-level jet (LLJ) and the retreat of the upper-level jet stream (e.g., Higgins et al. 1997 ; Wang and Chen 2009 ). Such a circulation evolution forms a preferred time frame for the “warm-season pattern,” consisting of a slow-moving ridge over the western United States and a synoptic

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Hirohiko Masunaga and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

section 4 ). The NEP shows a weaker but discernible annual cycle in advective heat flux, probably due to the seasonal meridional shift of the east Pacific warm pool ( Wang and Enfield 2001 ). The remaining heat fluxes, all shown in Fig. 11d , do not have a notable seasonal cycle, except that Q LH in the SEP slightly varies seasonally, reaching itslargest negative flux in austral winter. The contrast in absorbed shortwave flux between the SEP and NEP stems from a combination of multiple effects. As

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Theodore L. Allen, Scott Curtis, and Douglas W. Gamble

2008 ; etc.)—in particular, sea surface temperature ( Wang et al. 2008 ) and the Caribbean low-level jet ( Wang 2007 ; Muñoz et al. 2008 ). However, there is a paucity of research on the biophysical response to the MSD. Incorporating vegetative response with other current atmospheric/oceanic research provides a more complete understanding through an earth integrated-systems approach to the MSD and can be connected to societal effects as experienced by farmers. The normalized difference vegetation

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Jeffrey Shaman

Pacific and that this response is relatively instantaneous. Certainly, there is some role for forcing from other regions and antecedent conditions, as demonstrated by prior studies. For instance, Mathieu et al. (2004) found that Atlantic SSTs have a role determining the North Atlantic–European response to individual El Niño events using the Hadley Centre AGCM. However, as represented by CAM4, these effects are less predominant than the seasonally instantaneous, tropical Pacific–forced response. Both

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David Maximiliano Zermeño-Díaz

the climatic richness of the IAS is constrained by geographical factors (e.g., Sobel et al. 2011 ). More specifically, its pronounced orographic effects might act to constrain the patterns in which the regional variability is manifested across time. This study proposes that a pattern of such geographically constrained nature is that characterizing the most notable climatological feature of the intraseasonal variability in the region, that of the midsummer drought (MSD). The MSD is a relative

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G. Q. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Xuan, J. F. Liu, J. L. Jin, Z. X. Bao, R. M. He, C. S. Liu, Y. L. Liu, and X. L. Yan

38.2° and 39.8°N, 109.5° and 111.1°E in the East Asian monsoon climate zone, it is generally arid to semiarid, with average areal precipitation of 414 mm yr −1 . There is no permanent snow in this catchment, but seasonal snowfall and snow accumulation exist in this catchment owing to lower temperature in winter and high temperature in summer. The drainage area of the Kuye River catchment is 8645 km 2 , with a mainstream length of 242 km. The catchment contains two major tributaries (the

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