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Scott E. Stevens, Carl J. Schreck III, Shubhayu Saha, Jesse E. Bell, and Kenneth E. Kunkel

a unique opportunity to study these relationships for the entire continental United States over a 6-yr period. Given the availability of data at such a fine spatial and temporal resolution (0.01° × 0.01°, 5 min), we seek to investigate the effect of precipitation that is actively falling (or not) at the time of a crash, rather than the after-effects such as a wet or icy road. While pooling statistics still allows for analyses grouped by time and space, the high resolution of this dataset enables

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Ping Zhao, Xiangde Xu, Fei Chen, Xueliang Guo, Xiangdong Zheng, Liping Liu, Yang Hong, Yueqing Li, Zuo La, Hao Peng, Linzhi Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Shihao Tang, Yimin Liu, Huizhi Liu, Yaohui Li, Qiang Zhang, Zeyong Hu, Jihua Sun, Shengjun Zhang, Lixin Dong, Hezhen Zhang, Yang Zhao, Xiaolu Yan, An Xiao, Wei Wan, Yu Liu, Junming Chen, Ge Liu, Yangzong Zhaxi, and Xiuji Zhou

-developed logistics. Thus, a few field experiments have been implemented in the data-scarce areas. For instance, the first Qinghai–Xizang Plateau Meteorology Experiment (QXPMEX) was carried out from May to August 1979 ( Tao et al. 1986 ). This experiment promoted, for the first time, systematic research on the diurnal and seasonal variations and spatial features of the surface heat budget, the structures and evolutions of atmospheric circulation systems over the TP, and their effects on global and Asian general

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Oscar Pizarro, Nadin Ramírez, Manuel I. Castillo, Ursula Cifuentes, Winston Rojas, and Matias Pizarro-Koch

central Chile. Additional current and oxygen measurements based on moored sensors (not shown here) over the continental shelf off Concepción support this idea. Fig . 4. Stick diagrams of the current observed over the shelf break (36°33′S, 73°34′W, Fig. 1 ) off Concepción. The arrows show the glider observation periods during January and March 2011 shown in Fig. 3 . Near the coast, the distributions of oxygen, salinity, and temperature show the effects of seasonal variability in upwelling ( Fig. 2

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Ibrahim Hoteit, Yasser Abualnaja, Shehzad Afzal, Boujemaa Ait-El-Fquih, Triantaphyllos Akylas, Charls Antony, Clint Dawson, Khaled Asfahani, Robert J. Brewin, Luigi Cavaleri, Ivana Cerovecki, Bruce Cornuelle, Srinivas Desamsetti, Raju Attada, Hari Dasari, Jose Sanchez-Garrido, Lily Genevier, Mohamad El Gharamti, John A. Gittings, Elamurugu Gokul, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Daquan Guo, Bilel Hadri, Markus Hadwiger, Mohammed Abed Hammoud, Myrl Hendershott, Mohamad Hittawe, Ashok Karumuri, Omar Knio, Armin Köhl, Samuel Kortas, George Krokos, Ravi Kunchala, Leila Issa, Issam Lakkis, Sabique Langodan, Pierre Lermusiaux, Thang Luong, Jingyi Ma, Olivier Le Maitre, Matthew Mazloff, Samah El Mohtar, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Trevor Platt, Larry Pratt, Naila Raboudi, Marie-Fanny Racault, Dionysios E. Raitsos, Shanas Razak, Sivareddy Sanikommu, Shubha Sathyendranath, Sarantis Sofianos, Aneesh Subramanian, Rui Sun, Edriss Titi, Habib Toye, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Panagiotis Vasou, Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli, Yixin Wang, Fengchao Yao, Peng Zhan, and George Zodiatis

environment, the seasonal Indian monsoon system, and the orographic effects of the coastal mountains, with the resultant atmospheric forcing exhibiting marked variability on various time scales ( Viswanadhapalli et al. 2017 ). As a result of the arid climate, the annual mean net freshwater loss due to excess of evaporation over precipitation is estimated at ∼2 m yr −1 , and the heat flux has a relatively small annual mean heat loss of 11 W m −2 , but a large annual cycle with a range of ∼200 W m −2

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E. Carmack, I. Polyakov, L. Padman, I. Fer, E. Hunke, J. Hutchings, J. Jackson, D. Kelley, R. Kwok, C. Layton, H. Melling, D. Perovich, O. Persson, B. Ruddick, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, T. Ross, S. Vavrus, and P. Winsor

order 15°C, the associated heat flux is 3 TW averaged over an entire year, with a peak of 12 TW in June and July ( Whitefield et al. 2015 ). On an annual average, this heat input is 10% of the sum of the AW and PW inflows. However, the strong seasonal cycle of river inputs and the dominance of discharge into the coastal domain of shallow shelf seas suggest that these inputs may have disproportionately large impacts on their proximate shelves through their effects on melting ice and affecting local

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Anthony G. Barnston, Michael K. Tippett, Michelle L. L'Heureux, Shuhua Li, and David G. DeWitt

settings and two base periods. Verification measures used include the temporal correlation, root mean squared error, bias, and standard deviation ratio. Applied to each of the several lead times, the measures are used both for all predictions over the 9-yr period and for seasonally stratified predictions. An additional diagnostic is the lag correlation between forecasts and observations, to detect systematic tendencies for predictions intended for a given lead time to verify with higher skill at other

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Henry F. Diaz and Thomas W. Swetnam

spruce–fir stands) have probably not been altered by twentieth-century fire suppression effects because these forests generally did not sustain surface fires, and burned only at 100–150-plus-year intervals in the past ( Schoennagle et al. 2004 ). A comparison of the 1910 “blow up” event to modern extreme wildfire events is useful because it also was associated with preceding seasonal climate conditions (i.e., warm springs extending into warm summers), resulting in wildfires exceeding in size all

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P. O. Canziani, A. O'Neill, R. Schofield, M. Raphael, G. J. Marshall, and G. Redaelli

A World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Special Workshop titled the “Climatic effects of ozone depletion in the Southern Hemisphere: Assessing the evidence and identifying gaps in the current knowledge” focused on the current understanding of Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone depletion, in particular high-latitude ozone depletion, with regards to its impacts on hemispheric climate and its role relative to greenhouse gas (GHG)–induced climate changes. The 2010 United Nations Environment Programme

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I. D. Stewart and T. R. Oke

, whereas contrasts between classes with lesser physical difference can be less than 2 K. This pattern is easily disrupted by the dynamical and seasonal effects of surface wetness, relief, tree cover, snow cover, and anthropogenic heat, all of which can override or offset the unvarying effects of building form and surface cover. Numerical surface and atmospheric models show that the diurnal temperature range in each class decreases with increasing impervious surface fraction and height/density of

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Min Xu, Xing Yuan, Tiejun Ling, Hyun I. Choi, Feng Zhang, Ligang Chen, Shuyan Liu, Shenjian Su, Fengxue Qiao, Yuxiang He, Julian X. L. Wang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Wei Gao, Everette Joseph, Vernon Morris, Tsann-Wang Yu, Jimy Dudhia, and John Michalakes

, CWRF adds the advanced CSSP and CROP for terrestrial hydrology and crop growth over land, and SOM and UOM for mixed-layer and upper-ocean effects. The two urban schemes are separated from Noah and now work with all land surface schemes. All seven surface layer schemes, originally tied to specific options, are now interchangeable for all surface and PBL schemes. The PBL driver hosts seven WRF plus two new (CAM, UW) PBL schemes, all of which are integrated with the ORO, accounting for orographic

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