Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 32,445 items for :

  • Southern Ocean x
  • All content x
Clear All
Emily Shuckburgh, Helen Jones, John Marshall, and Chris Hill

1. Introduction Throughout the ocean, satellite altimetry data reveal a complex regional eddy kinetic energy (EKE) distribution ( Stammer 1997 ; Stammer et al. 2006 ). Significant enhancement in eddy activity is observed in the vicinity of strong currents: the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic, the Kuroshio and its extension in the Pacific, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Southern Ocean. Much of this eddy activity arises through baroclinic instability, although barotropic

Full access
Jennifer E. Kay, Casey Wall, Vineel Yettella, Brian Medeiros, Cecile Hannay, Peter Caldwell, and Cecilia Bitz

1. Motivation Excessive absorbed shortwave radiation (ASR) over the midlatitude oceans is a ubiquitous, large, and long-standing bias in both climate models and reanalyses ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2010 ; Hwang and Frierson 2013 ). ASR biases are largest over the Southern Ocean, where local differences between satellite-observed and modeled ASR often reach tens ofwatts per square meter. In many models, insufficient cloud optical depth explains the excessive midlatitude ocean ASR. Simply put, the

Full access
Qian Li, Sukyoung Lee, Matthew H. England, and Julie L. McClean

) variability (e.g., Seager et al. 2003 ; L’Heureux and Thompson 2006 ; Lim et al. 2013 ). Gong et al. (2010) showed that ENSO tends to modulate the background flow so that it is favorable for strong SAM phases to occur. Moreover, the SAM-related SH atmospheric anomalies account for changes not only in the zonal-mean circulation ( Seager et al. 2003 ; Sen Gupta and England 2006 ) but also in the zonally varying circulation ( L’Heureux and Thompson 2006 ). The Southern Ocean response to the SAM has

Full access
E. J. Walsh, C. W. Wright, M. L. Banner, D. C. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Jensen, and S. Lee

1. Introduction For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX; Banner et al. 1999 ; Chen et al. 2001 ; Walsh et al. 2005 ), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA; Walsh et al. 1996 , 2002 ; Wright et al. 2001 ) was shipped to Australia and installed on the CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft, instrumented to make comprehensive measurements of air–sea interaction fluxes. The SRA swept a radar beam of 1° half-power width (two way) across the

Full access
Yanzhou Wei, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew R. Mazloff, Veronica Tamsitt, Sebastiaan Swart, Dake Chen, and Louise Newman

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean serves as a gateway between the atmosphere and the middepth ocean, both because its steeply sloped isopycnals bring intermediate water to the ocean surface (e.g., Marshall and Speer 2012 ) and because winter mode water formation mixes recently ventilated water into the ocean interior (e.g., Hanawa and Talley 2001 ; Cerovečki et al. 2013 ). The region is responsible for much of the global ocean uptake of CO 2 ( Caldeira and Duffy 2000 ; Sabine et al. 2004

Open access
Ryan D. Patmore, Paul R. Holland, David R. Munday, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David P. Stevens, and Michael P. Meredith

1. Introduction The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Southern Ocean gyres are key components of the global climate system. The Southern Ocean forms the primary pathway for communication between the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans ( Talley 2013 ; Naveira Garabato et al. 2014 ). Water, heat, salt, and other important tracers are transported zonally between these ocean basins around Antarctica via the ACC ( Talley 2013 ), which has an estimated total volume transport of 173.3 ± 10

Open access
John M. Haynes, Christian Jakob, William B. Rossow, George Tselioudis, and Josephine Brown

Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes have received far less scrutiny, in part because of a lack of in situ observations in this ocean-dominated hemisphere. Yet, there are compelling reasons to better understand the cloud systems that occur over the Southern Ocean. One reason for the recent increasing interest in Southern Ocean clouds is the mounting evidence that they are poorly represented by climate models. Climate model errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes over the Southern Ocean are among the

Full access
F. Sévellec, A. C. Naveira Garabato, J. A. Brearley, and K. L. Sheen

motions; e.g., Polzin et al. 1997 ; D’Asaro et al. 2007 ; Waterman et al. 2013 ; Sheen et al. 2013 ) to near-bottom frictional Ekman currents along sloping topographic boundaries ( Garrett et al. 1993 ), wind-driven Ekman motions, and rectified mesoscale eddy flows along sloping isopycnals ( Marshall and Speer 2012 , and references therein). The latter two mechanisms are believed to extensively underpin vertical flow in the Southern Ocean, a region hosting a prominent large-scale vertical

Full access
Edward W. Doddridge, John Marshall, Hajoon Song, Jean-Michel Campin, and Maxwell Kelley

1. Introduction Each year approximately 15 million km 2 of sea ice forms and subsequently melts in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean ( Fetterer et al. 2017 ). The buoyancy fluxes associated with this seasonal ice cycle play an important role in the meridional overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean ( Abernathey et al. 2016 ; Haumann et al. 2016 ). This circulation connects the surface with the abyss and is a conduit for exchange between reservoirs of heat, carbon, and

Restricted access
Linette N. Boisvert, Melinda A. Webster, Alek A. Petty, Thorsten Markus, Richard I. Cullather, and David H. Bromwich

1. Introduction The hydrologic cycle helps to modulate the global climate, weather patterns ( Zhang 2005 ; Sobel et al. 2008 , 2010 ; Tromeur and Rossow 2010 ), and weather extremes ( Cohen et al. 2014 ; Overland et al. 2016 ) and to supply the continents with freshwater that is vital for human, animal, and biota sustainability and survival ( Watkins et al. 2007 ). The Southern Ocean, which makes up 15% of Earth’s surface ( Huang et al. 2016 ), plays a key role in Earth’s hydrologic cycle

Restricted access