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Lynne D. Talley

. On shallowisopycnals, high potential vorticity is found in the tropics, subpolar gyre, and along the eastern boundary of thesubtropical gyre, all associated with Ekman upwelling. Low potential vorticity is found in the western subtropicalgyre (subtropical mode water), in a separate patch near the sea surface in the eastern subtropical gyre andextending around the gyre, and near sea-surface outcrops in the subpolar gyre; the last is analogous to thesubpolar mode water of the North Atlantic and

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A. V. Fedorov, R. C. Pacanowski, S. G. Philander, and G. Boccaletti

. (The regions of gain and loss are shown in Fig. 1b , a map of heat fluxes across the ocean surface.) The wind-driven ventilated thermocline circulation determines the thermal structure of the upper ocean in the Tropics and subtropics. It essentially maps latitudinal temperature gradients at the surface onto the vertical. It does so only for the upper ocean because, as is evident in Fig. 1a , the wind-driven circulation penetrates to a depth of a few hundred meters at most. That depth depends on

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Bohua Huang, James A. Carton, and J. Shukla

Equatorial Undercurrent intensified.Forced by the anomalous equatorial eastefiies, warm water diverged from the equator into the Tropics in thewestern ocean. In the southeastern portion of the basin, the thermocline was shallow and SST was anomalouslylow. When the southeast trade winds were weakened in 1984, warm water converged toward the equator fromboth hemispheres, and then shifted into the southeast part of the ocean. The heat anomalies were maintainedthere during 1985/86, when the southeast trades

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Kevin E. Trenberth and John T. Fasullo

Antonov et al. (2004) ]; however, tests show that the magnitude of the annual cycle is not significantly affected by these refinements. In general, the patterns of O E derived here are quite similar to the actual O E of Antonov et al. (2004) outside of the tropics, except the latter are ∼10%–20% larger. One source of discrepancy can be the depth of integration, and Levitus and Antonov (1997) show that depths below 150 m are often somewhat out of phase with near-surface values. Deser et al

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Warren B. White, Gary A. Meyers, Jean Rene Donguy, and Stephen E. Pazan

observing ships. Anomalies of SST and Tao were approximately the samemagnitude at midlatitude as in the tropics, with the exception of large changes occurring in the tropics duringthe 1982-83 ENSO event. During the ENSO event, Tar variability was largest in the western tropical NorthPacific and SST variability was largest in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Both parameters had spatial patternswhich were of opposite phase on either side of the ocean, indicating an eastward shift of warm waters duringthe

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Qi Wang and Rui Xin Huang

discussed by Huang and Liu (1999) . These studies reveal important dynamical aspects of these pathways, but many questions remain unanswered. To better understand the communication between the Tropics and subtropics it is desirable to map out these pathways clearly. Huang and Wang (2001) postulated a simple index based on wind stress data. The choke value of a virtual streamfunction, defined through the barotropic transport, was used to quantify the barotropic interior pathway. This was compared

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Rui M. Ponte

comparison with P a . The standard deviation of ζ F shows typical values of 10–20 cm over most of the ocean, but with significantly larger values in the Tropics, particularly along the intertropical convergence zones and in the western Pacific Ocean ( Fig. 2a ). Peak values can reach more than 100 cm. Taking 1 cm of water as equivalent to 1 hPa of pressure, the variability in ocean loading associated with ζ F can be directly compared with that of P a , which ranges from less than 2 hPa in the

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Boyin Huang, Vikram M. Mehta, and Niklas Schneider

studied by Schneider and Barnett (1995) and Yang et al. (1999) . The possible role of EmP and salinity in the coupling from the Tropics to the extratropics, however, has not been investigated. Salinity anomalies are long lived since they are not attenuated by ocean to atmosphere feedback ( Hall and Manabe 1997 ) and, therefore, they can be transported to remote regions and influence ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in remote regions after a long time. Decadal ocean and climate variations can

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Rui M. Ponte and Richard D. Rosen

, thestrongest variability in relative angular momentum is found in the Tropics at all depths, a manifestation of thezonal, recirculating character of the tropical circulation. The time rate of change of M is very small comparedto the applied wind torque. Calculation of bottom pressure torques using the geostrophic relation reveals adominant balance between them and the surface wind torques in the model, implying a rapid transfer of angularmomentum between the atmosphere and the solid earth through the ocean

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Kirsty E. Hanley, Stephen E. Belcher, and Peter P. Sullivan

pattern of both wind sea and swell. They determined the global distribution of wind waves and swell using the wind–wave relation for fully developed seas given by Hasselmann et al. (1988) , assuming that measurements of H s less than the fully developed limit are from a growing sea and measurements of H s that are greater are swell. Chen et al. (2002) find that swell occurs more than 80% of the time in most of the world’s oceans. They identify three “swell pools” in the tropics where the

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