Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 11,112 items for :

  • Water budget/balance x
  • All content x
Clear All
Jeffrey Cardille, Michael T. Coe, and Julie A. Vano

addition to the more common accounting of lake water budgets. With the model validated in representative lakes from the NHLD, we address the following questions. In the NHLD, what is the relative effect of lake hydrologic type and climate on water balance measures? What factors most strongly influence lake type and the fate of precipitation in groundwater-dominated catchments of the Northern Highlands? Through exploration of lake responses with this model, we can begin to conceptualize the interactions

Full access
E. Vowinckel and Svenn Orvig

JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOr. VMEI8The Water Budget and Potential Water Reserves of the East Africa Source Region of the Nile X. VOWINCKEL AND SVENN ORVIGDepar#nent of Metton~/~ly, MEG/# Unlver~ty, Monir~a2, Canado, H3A 2T6(Mauuscript received 7 January 1978, in final form 16 August 1978)ABSTRACT An energy budget model has been used, with daily synoptic surface and upper air data from four stationsin East

Full access
Balázs M. Fekete, Charles J. Vörösmarty, John O. Roads, and Cort J. Willmott

1. Introduction Water balance calculations are important in both climate research and biosphere studies since they provide essential information on the amount of water circulating in the hydrological cycle and the amount of renewable water available for ecosystems and human society. The water budget over a unit land surface area is normally expressed as R = P − E − dS / dt , where P is precipitation [length/time (L/T)], E is evapotranspiration ( L / T ), dS / dt is change in

Full access
Randal D. Koster and P. C. D. Milly

in our analysis of the annual mean water balance and can thus explain, at least in part, the estimation bias. The neglect of the negative correlation between soil moisture and potential evaporation in the annual analysis also promotes the observed positive bias. Another factor is the shape of the assumed piecewise-linear runoff functions. Both R and G are concave upward for most LSMs. Ignoring the horizontal parts of these functions in the annual budget analysis tends to bias runoff estimates

Full access
Tajdarul H. Syed, James S. Famiglietti, and Don P. Chambers

river basins, the continents ( Fig. 1a ), drainage regions ( Fig. 1b ), 10° latitudinal zones, and for all global land. Further, we comprehensively compare our estimates to those from other studies, and we also assess global water budget closure at monthly and seasonal time scales by comparing global land and ocean water balances. The primary objective of this study is to present and analyze gauge-independent, observation-based estimates of terrestrial freshwater discharge into the ocean. Implicit

Full access
Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

E − P ocor is consistent with the land surface water budget but not the atmospheric water budget. The performance of the MERRA-2 land system in the context of land surface hydrology and GRACE observations will be reported separately ( Reichle et al. 2016 , unpublished manuscript); here we focus primarily on the atmospheric water balance except where specifically noted by calling out the observation-corrected precipitation P ocor . In some comparisons, we will include a pure model experiment

Full access
Fengge Su and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

represents a complex synthesis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and other components of the hydrological cycle. In this study, we address the following questions: 1) How predictable are runoff and streamflow in the LPB? 2) What is the spatiotemporal variability of the water balance terms of the LPB? 3) How well can the water budgets be closed using independent estimates of the major state variables and fluxes? and 4) How much moisture is recycled within the LPB, and how does the recycling ratio vary

Full access
Daniel L. Cadet and Steve Greco

, moisture budgets over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are investigatedfor the 1979 summer monsoon season. Over the Arabian Sea the different terms of the moisture balance equation, except evaporation, stronglyfluctuate depending on the activity of the monsoon. The relative contribution to the monsoon moisture supplyby water vapor Ixansport across the equator and Arabian Sea evaporation varies as the monsoon intensitychanges from active through break and back to revival stages. However, it is

Full access
Alberto R. Piola and Arnold L. Gordon

by imposing a uniformly distributed upwe!!ing rate from the deepocean. From the equatorial zone budget of the Pacific Ocean a flow of 14 x 106 m3 s-~ at 33.6%o salinity intothe Indian Ocean through the Southeast Asian Seas is required. This transport agrees with that derived fromthe Indian Ocean mass and freshwater balances.1: Introduction Production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)transfers thermocline layer water into the abyssal ocean.Export of NADW to the Pacific and Indian

Full access
Heinz H. Lettau and Edward J. Hopkins

summer drought, for a continental or summer-rain climate in comparison with the less severe long-term reactions in a maritime or winter-rain climate; 2 ) the monthly balance of cvaporabie water and runoff reduction as caused by rainfor~t depletion in tropical Panama. Evapociimatonomy 111 is compared with two other methods for climatic water budget evaluation: 1 ) the Thornthwaite--Mather method using data for Wilmington, Delaware; and 2) the Penman method in a "monthly

Full access