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C. Kiemle, G. Ehret, A. Fix, M. Wirth, G. Poberaj, W. A. Brewer, R. M. Hardesty, C. Senff, and M. A. LeMone

density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 106 , 85 – 100 . 10.1002/qj.49710644707 Weckwerth, T. M. , and Coauthors , 2004 : An overview of the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002) and some preliminary highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 253 – 277 . 10.1175/BAMS-85-2-253 Wulfmeyer, V. , 1999 : Investigations of turbulent processes in the lower troposphere with water vapor DIAL and radar-RASS. J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 1055 – 1076 . 10

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Likun Wang, Changyong Cao, and Mitch Goldberg

1. Introduction The upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) fields, which are defined as the water vapor amount between about 600 and 200 hPa, have a significant effect on outgoing longwave radiation and, consequently, influence the earth’s climate system ( Held and Soden 2000 , and references therein). The calculation of UTH from satellite radiance measurements—especially radiance measurements from geostationary satellites with the capability to observe the time variability of UTH with high

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Yi Ming and Isaac M. Held

1. Introduction A complicating factor in simulating and understanding the climatic roles of water vapor (WV) and clouds is their tight coupling with circulation, posing a major bottleneck in narrowing the uncertainty of cloud feedback ( Bony et al. 2015 ). This motivates us to construct a model of passive WV and clouds, meaning that both are advected as tracers that do not feed back on circulation either through latent heat release or through cloud radiative effects (CRE). Such a model can be

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, and Elie Bou-Zeid

1. Introduction Water vapor in the atmosphere plays critical roles in cloud formation, precipitation, and the atmospheric radiation budget. The correct initialization of atmospheric water vapor, for example, directly affects the forecast accuracy of precipitation in terms of occurrence and amount ( Hanesiak et al. 2010 ). Water vapor also plays a central role in analyses of Earth’s climate, especially in connection with the response of the climate system to warming ( Held and Soden 2006 ). In

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John Hanesiak, Mark Melsness, and Richard Raddatz

and energy exchange in Great Plains tallgrass prairie and wheat ecosystems. Agric. For. Meteor. , 131 , 162 – 179 . Hogg , D. C. , F. O. Guiraud , J. B. Snider , M. T. Decker , and E. R. Westwater , 1983 : A steerable dual-channel microwave radiometer for measurement of water vapor and liquid in the troposphere. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 22 , 789 – 806 . Jarlemark , P. , and G. Elgered , 2003 : Retrieval of atmospheric water vapour using a ground-based single

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Byung-Ju Sohn, Johannes Schmetz, Rolf Stuhlmann, and Joo-Young Lee

Inamdar 1995 ; Slingo et al. 1998 ; Allan and Ringer 2003 ), suggesting that there exists a nonnegligible bias in the ERBE clear-sky flux causing a potential problem in interpreting CRF in climate studies. A satellite bias in clear-sky longwave fluxes has also been identified by modeling studies (e.g., Harshvardhan et al. 1989 ; Cess et al. 1992 ). Consistent with these findings, a dry bias in the upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) from 6.7- μ m water vapor channel satellite measurements was also

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Kaya Kanemaru and Hirohiko Masunaga

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor has an important role in maintaining the hydrological cycle on the earth’s climate system. Water vapor integrated from the surface to the top of the atmosphere, often called column water vapor (CWV), is known to be related closely with sea surface temperature (SST) over the global ocean (e.g., Prabhakara et al. 1979 ; Raval and Ramanathan 1989 ; Stephens 1990 ; Gaffen et al. 1992 ; Jackson and Stephens 1995 ; Wentz and Schabel 2000 ; Trenberth et

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Amanda C. Maycock, Manoj M. Joshi, Keith P. Shine, and Adam A. Scaife

1. Introduction There is continued interest in the impact of stratospheric water vapor (SWV) trends on climate ( Forster and Shine 1999 , 2002 ; Smith et al. 2001 ; Solomon et al. 2010 ). This has been motivated by the observed increase in SWV of ~30% over the late twentieth century ( Scherer et al. 2008 ; Hurst et al. 2011 ) and the rapid and persistent decrease of ~15% after 2000 ( Randel et al. 2006 ; Rosenlof and Reid 2008 ). Furthermore, SWV has been projected to increase by up to a

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Josefina Moraes Arraut and Prakki Satyamurty

1. Introduction Extensive regions of high precipitation receive moisture from the large-scale atmospheric flow in the lower troposphere. Some previous studies have identified important pathways through which moisture is brought to fuel precipitation in specific areas. D’Abreton and Tyson (1995) undertook a detailed study of the field of water vapor transport and its convergence in the interseasonal and interannual time scales to investigate the sources of moisture for the rainy season in

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Sebastian Mieruch, Stefan Noël, Maximilian Reuter, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, Marc Schröder, and Jörg Schulz

robustness of the estimated errors in the derived trends, and to quantitatively establish the representativeness of the trends, it is not sufficient to calculate only the trends and their errors, but it is also necessary to compare trends from independent instruments having overlapping measurements. In this manuscript, we compare trends of total water vapor columns obtained from different sources. One dataset is from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ( Burrows et al. 1999 )—onboard ERS-2

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