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Timothy A. Coleman and Kevin R. Knupp

thank Ron Przybylinski of the National Weather Service for his assistance with this project, and Dr. Carmen Nappo (NOAA, retired) for thoughtful discussions on gravity wave dynamics. The comments of anonymous reviewers significantly improved the manuscript. Funding for this research is provided by grants from the National Science Foundation (ATM-0533596) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NA07OAR4600493). REFERENCES Batchelor, G. K. , 1967 : An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

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Steven Businger, Selen Yildiz, and Thomas E. Robinson

characteristics ( Wang and Swail 2001 ). In particular, variability in extreme wave conditions is related to variability in atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., frequency and intensity of extratropical cyclones) ( Izaguirre et al. 2011 ). From the perspective of individual cyclones, large ocean waves may form and propagate over long distances depending on the storm’s wind speed and fetch characteristics ( Jelenak et al. 2009 ; Caldwell and Aucan 2007 ). A fetch has alternatively been defined as the length

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Ricardo Martins Campos, Jose-Henrique G. M. Alves, Stephen G. Penny, and Vladimir Krasnopolsky

be overlooked, the final results in section 5 present the metrics calculated considering the buoy measurement errors. 2. The Global Wave Ensemble Forecast System The NCEP Global atmospheric Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) was implemented in 1992. The Global Wave Ensemble System (GWES) was implemented in 2005 ( Chen 2006 ), and validated by Cao et al. (2007) and Alves et al. (2013) . In the initial GWES implementation, wave generation and decay were estimated by the source terms proposed by

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Philip A. Lutzak

analogous phenomena in the atmosphere in the 1980s by researchers such as Clarke et al. (1981) , Simpson (1982) , Clarke (1984) , Crook (1988) , Smith and Reeder (1988) , Rottman and Simpson (1989) , Christie et al. (1978) , and Christie (1989) . They established that the characteristics of atmospheric undular bores are largely determined by the initial speed of the density current relative to the speed of the waves produced and the resulting changes in the properties of the stable layer. This

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Paul A. Hwang and Edward J. Walsh

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most hazardous natural disasters. They cause tremendous damage and pose extreme challenges for ship operations. Presently, satellite and other TC monitoring efforts primarily address the wind velocity; there is no operational spaceborne capability for similar synoptic and continuous observations of wave parameters. To properly evaluate the damage potential of a TC, it is critical to consider not only wind but also sea state parameters such

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Jonny Mooneyham, Sean C. Crosby, Nirnimesh Kumar, and Brian Hutchinson

, assimilation remains challenging and operational products such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s WAVEWATCH III (WW3; Tolman 2009 ) do not currently assimilate buoy observations. Multiple characteristics associated with surface wave dynamics make numerical wave modeling and wave data assimilation challenging. Wave generation, dissipation, and some aspects of propagation like quadruplet and triad wave interaction are nonlinear and vary across time scales. Errors in surface wind

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Gabriel Diaz-Hernandez, Fernando J. Mendez, and Roberto Mínguez

performance of the wave reanalysis models is conditioned by the quality of the atmospheric surface winds ( Reguero et al. 2012 ), usually measured at 10 m above mean sea level. This requirement, and the inconvenience of having only both sparse and historically limited records measured from buoys, has contributed over the past few years to the incremental use of reanalysis numerical databases. These databases provide homogeneous spatial and temporal records for wind fields all around the globe. This makes

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David M. Gaffin, Stephen S. Parker, and Paul D. Kirkwood

velocity of the wave, U is the observed mean wind of the stable layer in the direction of wave propagation, and N is the Brunt–Väisälä frequency defined by where g is the acceleration due to gravity and θ 0 is the mean potential temperature of the stable layer. Other wave research by Scorer (1949) theorized that mountain waves were a function of atmospheric stability and vertical wind shear according to the equation where l 2 is the Scorer parameter, u o is the wind speed

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Charles R. Sampson, James A. Hansen, Paul A. Wittmann, John A. Knaff, and Andrea Schumacher

, and Ann Schrader. Rachel Knaff is acknowledged for processing years of NHC and JTWC messages for us. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or U.S. government position, policy, or decision. REFERENCES Alves, J.-H. , and Coauthors , 2013 : The NCEP–FNMOC combined wave ensemble product: Expanding benefits of interagency probabilistic forecasts to the oceanic

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David M. Gaffin

identification and prediction. Wea. Forecasting , 7 , 49 – 64 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1992)007<0049:TTWOSA>2.0.CO;2 Durran, D. R. , 1990 : Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, Meteor. Monogr., No. 45, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59–81 . Gaffin, D. M. , 2002 : Unexpected warming induced by foehn winds in the lee of the Smoky Mountains. Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 907 – 915 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0907:UWIBFW>2.0.CO;2 Gaffin, D. M. , 2007 : Foehn winds that

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