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Greg Holloway

906 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 10Oceanic Internal Waves Are Not Weak Waves GREG HOLLOWAYDepartment of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 9 October 1979, in final form 29 February 1980)ABSTRACT It is shown that the oceanic internal wave field is too energetic' by roughly two orders of magnitudeto be treated theoretically as an assemblage of weakly interacting waves

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Matthew H. Alford

1. Introduction Near-inertial internal waves (NIW) are known to dominate internal wave kinetic energy and shear spectra at all depths in the ocean ( Alford and Whitmont 2007 ; Silverthorne and Toole 2009 ). Because NIW energy ( Alford and Whitmont 2007 ) and parameterized mixing ( Whalen et al. 2018 ) both show strong seasonal cycles, a reasonable hypothesis is that wind-generated near-inertial waves contribute significantly to ocean mixing. In attempts to quantify the energy input of NIW, a

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Carl Wunsch

motions. A significant fraction of the energy exists, however, at large distances from this line, including that of eastward-going motions (20% of the total is eastward, 70% is westward, and 9% is indistinguishable from standing wave energy). The nondispersive line is nearly tangent to the first baroclinic mode dispersion curve (shown in the figure) near zero ( k , s ) and intersects the barotropic dispersion curve at large ( k , s ). This behavior appears to be typical of much of the ocean, but

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Eric D’Asaro

1. Introduction Measurements at the air–sea interface are crucial for monitoring, parameterizing, and understanding the behavior of both the ocean and atmosphere. Maintaining sensors here, however, is often difficult: vibration and impact from the constant wave motion is destructive, intermittent saltwater immersion is corrosive, biological fouling is difficult to prevent, and vandalism is common. Measurements of air–sea properties using sensors away from the interface overcome many of these

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Brandon G. Reichl, Isaac Ginis, Tetsu Hara, Biju Thomas, Tobias Kukulka, and Dong Wang

-eddy simulation (LES) studies (e.g., Noh et al. 2004 ; Polton and Belcher 2007 ; Kukulka et al. 2009 ). Because the intensity of the Langmuir turbulence depends on the relative importance of the wind forcing and the wave forcing, it strongly depends on the sea state through its surface wave field. Therefore, existing upper-ocean mixing parameterizations without explicit sea-state dependence may introduce significant errors in conditions where the surface wave field is not in equilibrium with local wind

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Christian M. Appendini, Alec Torres-Freyermuth, Paulo Salles, Jose López-González, and E. Tonatiuh Mendoza

1. Introduction The knowledge of both mean and extreme wave climate is paramount for coastal and ocean engineering. For instance, the increase in the understanding of wave climatology in different areas of the world has allowed a better design of offshore/coastal structures and management, as well as better planning for shipping, design of vessels, and renewable energy assessment, among other activities. Wave climatology has been traditionally based on buoy measurements and ship observations

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L. R. Centurioni

internal waves (NLIWs) in the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Within this experiment we tested a novel methodology, which employs an array of drifting instrumented chains, the Autonomous Drifting Ocean Stations (ADOS) with acoustic current profilers (ADOS-A hereafter), to measure the thermal structure and the three-dimensional velocity field of the upper ocean and of the NLIWs. Earlier examples of the use of drifting thermistor chains go back to the 1980s and 1990s ( Large et al. 1986 ; McPhaden et

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Francesco Fedele and Felice Arena

1. Introduction Stochastic modeling of time series of the significant wave height H s recorded at a given ocean site is the principal focus of statistical methods employed in the long-term prediction of extreme wave events during sea storms ( Krogstad 1985 ; Prevosto et al. 2000 ; Boccotti 2000 ). The reviews of several methods used for this can be found in the work of Isaacson and Mackenzie (1981) , Guedes Soares (1989) , and Goda (1999) . In these methods, the effects of the sea state

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Johanna H. Rosman and Gregory P. Gerbi

2001 ; Feddersen et al. 2007 ) by considering a more realistic turbulence spectrum that includes a rolloff at energy-containing scales. The general frozen turbulence approach is used to transform model turbulence κ spectra to ω spectra observed at a point when the turbulence is advected by waves and current. We systematically vary the current, wave properties, and turbulence properties across a wide parameter space that spans conditions in the coastal ocean, extending the work of Gerbi et al

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Enver Ramirez, Pedro L. da Silva Dias, and Carlos F. M. Raupp

( Longuet-Higgins et al. 1967 ; Domaracki and Loesch 1977 ; Majda et al. 1999 ; Holm and Lynch 2002 ; Raupp and Silva Dias 2009 ; Ripa 1982 , 1983a , b ). The present study applies both multiscale methods and nonlinear wave interaction theory to formulate a model capable of describing scale interactions in a simplified coupled atmosphere–ocean system. The multiscale method adopted here is similar to that adopted by Majda and Klein (2003) for the atmosphere. Thus, our approach can be regarded as

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