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Tajdarul H. Syed, James S. Famiglietti, and Don P. Chambers

of paramount importance in assessing changes in the earth system. However, integrated global networks of such observations are plagued by numerous technical, political, and economic challenges. Currently, there exists no comprehensive global network for the monitoring of freshwater discharge into the world oceans ( Alsdorf and Lettenmaier 2003 ; Brakenridge et al. 2005 ). To date, the majority of the reported assessments of global discharge are either based on modeled runoff, climatologies of

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Kazuyuki Saito, Tetsuzo Yasunari, and Kumiko Takata

the Rossby wave pattern generated by the Tibetan orography and the increased diabetic heating ( Rodwell and Hoskins 1996 ), to decrease total rainy-season precipitation by 60 mm in JJA, and the local vapor source by one-third. b. East Asia Figure 13 shows the impact of land surface conditions on the major sources of water vapor precipitates out in east Asia. The Pacific Ocean is the primary source throughout the year regardless of the surface conditions. The comparable contribution from other

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Yoshiki Fukutomi, Hiromichi Igarashi, Kooiti Masuda, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

). Northern Eurasian hydrology is also considered an important factor controlling the Arctic climate (e.g., Peng and Mysak 1993 ; Bowling et al. 2000 ; Serreze et al. 2001a , 2002 ) and that of the neighboring Asian monsoon area (e.g., Yasunari et al. 1991 ; Kripalani and Kulkarni 1999 ). The water from major Eurasian rivers is recognized as an effective source of freshwater flowing into the Arctic Ocean, [see reviews by Bowling et al. (2000) and Carmack (2000) ]. Atmospheric moisture transport

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Ian M. Ferguson, John A. Dracup, Philip B. Duffy, Philip Pegion, and Siegfried Schubert

persistence of extreme events such as droughts and heat waves ( Hong and Kalnay 2000 ; Schubert et al. 2004a ; Fischer et al. 2007 ; Pegion and Kumar 2008 ). Despite numerous studies on the relative contributions of ocean–atmosphere forcing and land–atmosphere feedbacks to the duration and magnitude of individual drought events, the influence of ocean–atmosphere forcing on the long-term stochastic characteristics of precipitation anomalies and drought—as opposed to individual drought events—has not

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Ulrike Romatschke and Robert A. Houze Jr.

cooling over the continent. The spreading over the ocean at night could also be a gravity wave response to the daytime heating over the high coastal terrain ( Mapes et al. 2003 ), but the amplitude of the daytime peak in medium system occurrence is so slight that this possibility seems unlikely. Large systems in the BOB region have a strong diurnal cycle ( Figs. 13e and 16 ). A clear minimum of occurrence of large systems occurs over BOB during the evening and the maximum is reached midday. A

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Courtenay Strong and Jessica Liptak

in the context of large-scale standing-wave teleconnections typically resolved via empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis (e.g., Small et al. 2010 ). The positive phase of the Pacific–North American pattern (PNA) depicts a wave train consisting of an anomalously strong Aleutian low, positive height anomalies over the western United States, and negative height anomalies over the southeastern United States ( Wallace and Gutzler 1981 ). Rodionov (1994) found that composites of 700-hPa

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Nicholas Siler, Gerard Roe, and Dale Durran

both T and R . Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with T and R How does the large-scale atmospheric circulation contribute to fluctuations in T and R ? We first present covariance maps of the DJF 500-hPa height anomalies with the time series of T and R ( Figs. 2a,b ). For reference, we also include a map of the mean DJF 500-hPa heights between 1982 and 2010 ( Fig. 2c ), which shows a stationary wave pattern characterized by low-pressure troughs in the storm track regions of the

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Sergey Y. Matrosov

1. Introduction For a number of years, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), in collaboration with other laboratories and agencies, has been conducting Hydrometeorological Test Bed (HMT) studies in California and the Pacific Northwest. These studies include detailed observations of precipitating systems, which move from the Pacific Ocean inland and impact the West Coast of the United States. The observations are conducted using a

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David Small, Shafiqul Islam, and Mathew Barlow

indicates a tendency for wet conditions in the central United States to occur during dry periods along the Gulf of Alaska and eastern Canada. The spatial pattern of the leading mode of fall precipitation variability in North America is tripolar, with the precipitation anomalies in the central United States having a sign opposite those along the eastern and western coasts of Canada. The correlation between PC1 and the 300-hPa streamfunction indicates the presence of a wave pattern that appears to

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Roni Avissar and David Werth

also indicate that the basin deforestation has no detectable, significant impact on the global hydroclimate. However, it is well known that El Niño has a major impact on the hydroclimate of many regions very far away from the eastern Pacific Ocean (e.g., Shabbar et al. 1997 ). With a relatively warm ocean surface, atmospheric moisture and instability above it are relatively high, providing appropriate conditions for the enhancement of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorms are the conduit to

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