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Julien Emile-Geay and Mark A. Cane

less effective than low-latitude winds. Since it is all too easy for the reader to get lost in the mathematical details, it may be worthwhile to give a brief informal account of the approach we will take. We wish to find the ocean’s response to a periodic wind forcing. As in CS81 , we write the solution as a sum of a forced part and a free part. Both are made up of forced or free long equatorial Kelvin waves and long Rossby waves, the only modes that exist in the interior of the basin at low

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Leonel Romero and W. Kendall Melville

-rate source term in modeling the fetch-limited evolution of wind waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1274 – 1298 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , D. Greenslade , and M. L. Banner , 2002 : Impact of a saturation-dependent dissipation source function on operational hindcasts of wind waves in the Australian region. Global Atmos. Ocean Syst. , 8 , 239 – 267 . Alves , J. H. G. M. , M. L. Banner , and I. R. Young , 2003 : Revisiting the Pierson–Moskowitz asymptotic limits for fully developed wind

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen and Miguel Onorato

1. Introduction Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a rapid increase in the understanding of the generation of extreme waves in the open ocean. Different mechanisms have been found to be relevant for the formation of such events [see Kharif and Pelinovsky (2003) for a review]. A number of experimental and theoretical works ( Janssen 2003 ; Onorato et al. 2001 , 2004 , 2005 ) have shown that, provided that the spectra are narrow banded and waves are steep, deep-water third

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James C. McWilliams and Juan M. Restrepo

-layer horizontal currents whose convergence causes a vertical divergence (i.e., Ekman pumping), which drives the interior, geostrophically balanced, horizontal circulation in extratropical oceanic gyres. The vertical integral of the total horizontal circulation is the Sverdrup transport. In this simple theory the sea state is ignored. However, surface gravity waves are capable of generating a mean Lagrangian current called the Stokes drift ( Stokes 1847 ). The Stokes drift can affect the large-scale sea state

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P. B. Smit and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction As ocean waves propagate from deep water, onto the continental shelves, and toward coastal areas, their propagation is affected increasingly by interaction with bathymetry and currents, the transition from dominant resonant four-wave interactions to near-resonant three-wave (or triad) interactions and the transformation of organized wave motion into turbulence, heat, and sound in the breaking process close to shore. The ability to model these processes and their effects on wave

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction Over the last several decades, there has been growing recognition from both oceanographic and atmospheric sciences communities that surface waves play a crucial role in the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere interact. Until recently, most of the observational literature on surface waves was driven by studies based on time series of wave measurements at a point (or at a relatively slowly moving mooring) combined with directional information from the dynamics of the

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Peter Sutherland and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction When wind flows over the open sea, it creates surface waves. Energy, momentum, and mass flux between the atmosphere and ocean are all modulated by this wave field ( Melville 1996 ). Although some of the energy and momentum flux input by the wind propagates away as swell, the majority is injected into the water column locally. This results in a turbulent marine boundary layer near the ocean surface, where energy is dissipated by turbulence. This work uses a combination of

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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Daniel Bourgault, David C. Janes, and Peter S. Galbraith

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We thank Kevin Lamb for sharing his code and fruitful discussions as well as James Caveen for code development. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. REFERENCES Bélanger , C. , 2003 : Observation and modelling of a renewal event in the Saguenay Fjord. Ph.D. thesis, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 235 pp . Boegman , L. , G. N. Ivey , and J. Imberger , 2005a : The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography

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Andrey Pleskachevsky, Mikhail Dobrynin, Alexander V. Babanin, Heinz Günther, and Emil Stanev

not present), and the second series of tests is based on satellite observations in the ocean. Conclusions are summarized and discussed in section 5 . a. Background Numerical simulation of different processes in the ocean, such as transport of different ingredients, chemical and biological exchange, morphodynamics, suspended matter transport, etc., is based on knowledge of wave climate and circulation current dynamics. Developments in recent years allow for application of such modern

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