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Franziska Glassmeier and Ulrike Lohmann

the location of small hydrometeors affects the extent of reevaporation (drying ratio). Aerosol effects on orographic precipitation are typically studied either in the context of deliberate cloud seeding, where the abundance of ice-formation aerosol [ice nucleating particles (INPs)] is increased (e.g., Xue et al. 2013 ; Geresdi et al. 2017 ), or in the context of anthropogenic pollution, which is usually assumed to be represented by an increase in cloud droplet–forming aerosol [cloud condensation

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Brian P. Flannery

[F(CO2)]. (4)We assigned a value to C that corresponds roughlywith "consensus" values for the increase in global meantemperature expected to arise from doubled CO2, i.e.A(T) = 3 _+ 1.5 K (National Research Council, 1982).To leading order in the small change introduced byCO2 effects, the mean temperature change will bea(T) = -C In[F(CO2)I/B, or C = 3 W m-2 for zX(T)= 1 K..By evaluating several trial models, we established that C = -6 W m-2 produces a rise in globalmean temperature for doubled CO2 in

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A. Khain, N. Cohen, B. Lynn, and A. Pokrovsky

penetrating TC clouds at the TC periphery (taken together with a higher instability at the TC periphery) create conditions favorable for lightning formation. Some support for possible aerosol effects can be found in Figs. 3a,b . Figure 3a shows that intense lightning begins when the TC approaches relatively close to the land (note that intense lightning starts on 27 August; see also Fig. 1a , corresponding to the period of the lightning ring formation). Figure 3b shows that lightning arises within

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Hella Garny, Martin Dameris, William Randel, Greg E. Bodeker, and Rudolf Deckert

used here is the SCN-B2d simulation defined in Eyring et al. (2008) . It is designed to simulate the past and future development of the atmosphere, including both anthropogenic and natural variability. Our experiment extends from 1960 to 2049 (following a 10-yr spinup). The 11-yr solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), sulfate aerosol loadings, and radiative effects of major volcanic eruptions are prescribed to 1999 using observations. Thereafter the solar cycle and QBO are repeated

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James G. Hudson and Seong Soo Yum

, R. J., S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley Jr., J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, 1992: Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols. Science, 255 (5043), 423–430. Chodes, N., J. Warner, and A. Gagin, 1974: A determination of the condensation coefficient of water from the growth rate of small cloud droplets. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1351–1357. Cooper, W. A., 1988: Effects of coincidence on measurements with a forward scattering spectrometer probe. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol

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Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Mark Castro, and Huiting Mao

1. Introduction Reducing mercury (Hg) emissions from primary sources is a top priority of the Minamata Convention in mitigating global transport of Hg and its harmful impacts on ecosystems and human health ( UNEP 2013 ). Natural emissions were estimated to be twice as large as anthropogenic emissions on global scales, but a large portion of natural emissions originated from anthropogenic sources through atmospheric deposition of Hg to the land surface followed by reemission ( Pirrone et al

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Peter V. Hobbs, L. F. Radke, and S. E. Shumway

thenorthwest corner of Washington, was observed to havesubstantial and persistent "fumulus" clouds associatedwith it on 30 April 1969. The only other clouds in thesky were thin stratus. On 7 June "fumulus" clouds wereobserved in the plume of the sulfite mills at PortAngeles, Wash., in an otherwise cloudless sky.5. Possible effects of CCN from anthropogenic sources on precipitation The introduction of artificial CCN into the atmosphere might change the efficiency with which cloudscan produce

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W. F. J. Evans and E. Puckrin

study of ozone production in a rural area of central Ontario. Atmos. Environ., 26A, 311–324. Lippmann, M., 1991: Health effects of tropospheric ozone. Environ. Sci. Technol., 25, 1954–1962. Logan, J. A., 1985: Tropospheric ozone: Seasonal behaviour, trends and anthropogenic influence. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10 463–10 482. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 1991: Changes in forest health and productivity in the United States and Canada. Acidic Deposition State of

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J. Li and Qilong Min

Energy, through the Northeast Regional Center of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-90ER61010. REFERENCES Chuang , C. C. , J. E. Penner , K. E. Taylor , and J. J. Walton , 1994 : Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model. Preprints, Conf. on Atmospheric Chemistry, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 170–174 . Chýlek , J. , and J. G. D. Wong , 1995 : Effect of

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Thomas P. Charlock and William D. Sellers

humidity. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 241-259.Oort, A., and E. Rasmusson, 1971: Atmospheric circulation statistics. NOAA Prof. Pap. No. 5, 323 pp.Otterman, J., 1977: Anthropogenic impact on the albedo of the earth. Climatic Change, 1, 137-155.Ramanathan, V., and J. A. Coakley, 1978: Climate modeling through radiative-convective models. Rev. Geophys. SpaceRasool, S., and S. Schneider, 1971: Atmospheric carbon dioxidePhys., 16, 465-489.and aerosols: Effects of large increases on global climate.Science, 173

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