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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

. 2009 ; A. Voß et al. 2012 ) has been developed. The aim of the WorldQual model is to determine chemical fluxes in different pathways that will allow a combination of water quantity with water quality analyses. In particular, effects of changed climate and anthropogenic conditions can be analyzed. The effect of climate change on transport and transformations of substances can be manifold; for example, changes in precipitation and air temperature can affect the hydrological cycle, or changed runoff

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Nicole Mölders

. 1999 ). If such clues are detected, regional climate simulations will urgently require sophisticated biome models that are run on subgrid scales to evaluate correctly the climatic effects on water resources. Additionally, uncertainty analysis on the influence of anthropogenic land use changes and examination of the relative contribution of these land use changes to climate change are urgently needed. Acknowledgments I express my thanks to K. Fröhlich and K. Friedrich for digitizing the land use

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Chuanguo Yang, Zhaohui Lin, Zhongbo Yu, Zhenchun Hao, and Shaofeng Liu

, cited . 2007 : Water resources bulletin of the Huaihe River Basin (1997-2003) (in Chinese). [Available online at http://www.hrc.gov.cn/list?folder=2089&model=00000000000000006576 ] . Isik, S. , Dogan E. , Kalin L. , Sasal M. , and Agiralioglu N. , 2008 : Effects of anthropogenic activities on the lower Sakarya River. Catena , 75 , 172 – 181 . 10.1016/j.catena.2008.06.001 Jolley, T. J. , and Wheater H. S. , 1997 : The introduction of runoff routing into large

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Gregory J. McCabe and David M. Wolock

Model (PRISM) dataset ( www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/ ). Temperature and precipitation data for all grid cells in the CONUS (481 639 PRISM grid cells) were used as input to a monthly time step WB model to estimate monthly runoff, where runoff is defined as the flow per unit area delivered from each grid cell to streams and rivers in units of millimeters per month. In the analysis presented here, runoff estimates for 1895–98 were discarded to avoid effects of initial model conditions. For computational

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Hui Fan and Daming He

and absence from significant anthropogenic disturbances make it a uniquely desirable environment for examining hydrological response to climate change ( Hannah et al. 2007 ). Its rapid climate warming inevitably exerts profound effects on the global and regional hydrological cycle ( Cao et al. 2006 ; Immerzeel et al. 2010 ; Lai 1996 ). Following climate warming, some parts of the Plateau witnessed increasing precipitation and streamflow ( Gautam et al. 2013 ). However, no significant annual

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Jiachuan Yang, Zhi-Hua Wang, Matei Georgescu, Fei Chen, and Mukul Tewari

) incorporated urban irrigation, oasis effect, and anthropogenic latent heat into the SLUCM. Evaluation against meteorological observations in Beijing showed that modeled latent heat flux was evidently improved. Inspired by this work and a state-of-the-art urban canopy model ( Wang et al. 2011b , 2013 ), Yang et al. (2015a) further implemented physically based parameterization of evaporation over impervious surfaces and incorporated a green roof system into the SLUCM. Significant enhancement in prediction

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Lin Zhao, S.-Y. Simon Wang, and Jonathan Meyer

−PDO anomalies (°C). The size of the circles indicates the magnitude of yearly − anomalies (cm month −1 ); colored circles indicate | | > 1.73 cm month −1 , where blue (red) indicates negative (positive) values. Variables r * and r indicate correlation with and without the restriction of | | > 1.73 cm month −1 , respectively. To further quantify the effects of natural variability such as NP and PDO from that of possible anthropogenic sources, we conducted a multiple linear regression method

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

that understanding into improved process parameterizations for use in models. 5. Climate and water resource applications a. Climate GEWEX addresses three aspects of anthropogenic climate change including increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and changing land use and other changes in the movement and storage of surface water. Taylor et al. (2002) and Zhang et al. (1996) have both demonstrated that land cover changes can have significant effects on surface temperature

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Megan D. Fowler, Michael S. Pritchard, and Gabriel J. Kooperman

climate models (GCMs), with mixed conclusions drawn about its effects on the simulated climate system ( Puma and Cook 2010 ; Lo and Famiglietti 2013 ; Huang and Ullrich 2016 ; de Vrese et al. 2016 ). Fully understanding such impacts will be necessary for interpreting the results from the next generation of GCMs to be used for coupled model intercomparison projects (CMIPs), which are likely to include irrigation as an anthropogenic modification of the natural water cycle. Irrigation may interact

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Holger Fritze, Iris T. Stewart, and Edzer Pebesma

hydroclimatic changes, several studies ( Knowles et al. 2006 ; Stewart et al. 2005 ; Mote et al. 2005 ) concluded that shifts toward earlier melt and runoff are mainly connected to anthropogenically driven winter and spring warming. More recently, several rigorous detection and attribution studies have formally established human-induced climatic changes rather than internal natural variability as the main driver of the observed hydroclimatic shifts of the past decades (i.e., Barnett et al. 2005

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