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S. G. Gopalakrishnan, Maithili Sharan, R. T. McNider, and M. P. Singh

(1974) and Estournel and Guedalia, (1985 , 1987) ] have been more or less restricted to strong or moderate wind situation. Further, the geostrophic wind as reported by Garratt (1982) for various nocturnal boundary layer experiments such as the Wangara, Minnesota, Cabauw, and Koorin indicates that the winds were strong or moderate in almost all the cases. However, weak wind conditions occur frequently over the Tropics and it is a situation that is not well understood. Sharan et al. (1995) have

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W. R. Young and G. R. Ierley

1584 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Eastern Boundary Conditions and Weak Solutions of the Ideal Thermocline Equations W. R. YOUNGDepartment of Earth, .4tmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139G. R. I~RrE- Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (Manuscript

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A. Capotondi and W. R. Holland

thermohaline boundary conditions known as “mixed boundary conditions” (the surface ocean temperature is restored toward a prescribed temperature field, while the surface boundary condition for salinity is in the form of a prescribed freshwater flux). A steady state is often never reached, and the system evolution may undergo oscillatory phases in the intensity of the thermohaline circulation at a quasi-decadal period. Greatbatch and Zhang (1995) find a sustained oscillation with a period of 32 years in a

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Igor V. Kamenkovich and E. S. Sarachik

and freshwater fluxes nor the current skill of the numerical modeling of the ocean is sufficient for realistic simulations of the temperature and salinity. The ocean owes its stratification in large part to surface processes. Therefore, realistic simulation of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) is crucial for successful modeling of the ocean state, and a choice of surface boundary conditions is often dictated by the need to keep the values of simulated SST and SSS as

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Daniel Argüeso, José Manuel Hidalgo-Muñoz, Sonia Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, María Jesús Esteban-Parra, and Yolanda Castro-Díez

climate model (RCM) enables the generation of high-resolution projections of climate change scenarios, and thus overcomes the resolution limitation of GCMs. The technique consists of finding an approximate solution to the equations of the atmosphere at high resolution over a confined region, using the GCMs to specify the boundary conditions. As a consequence, RCMs are able to resolve local-scale circulations that the GCMs cannot be expected to capture, providing added-value information with respect to

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M. Inoue, G. Matheou, and J. Teixeira

over the past decade by LES (e.g., Krueger et al. 1995 ; Wyant et al. 1997 ; Bretherton et al. 1999 ; Sandu and Stevens 2011 ; Chung et al. 2012 ). Past LES investigations of not only the Sc–Cu transition but ABL in general have been often limited to cases where horizontally periodic boundary conditions are applied. Although it is advantageous to retain the periodicity that enables numerically accurate implementations, it potentially poses limitations on the modeling of spatially developing

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Joshua M. Boustead, Barbara E. Mayes, William Gargan, Jared L. Leighton, George Phillips, and Philip N. Schumacher

associated with significant tornadoes near discernible boundaries and in the warm sector to nontornadic boundary and warm sector supercells. Thunderstorms occur on the meso-Γ scale, and forcing for their development generally occurs on the meso- α scale. Nevertheless, synoptic-scale environments can produce favorable conditions for convective initiation, and those times when both the synoptic and mesoscale environments are favorable for tornadoes are generally when the largest outbreaks occur ( Doswell

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Jeffrey D. Mirocha and Katherine A. Lundquist

(LES) with boundary conditions more realistically depicting larger-scale weather and other environmental forcing than is typical of commonly used idealized setups. Multiscale simulation in WRF utilizes grid nesting, whereby one or more subset(s) of a computational domain can be resolved at higher resolution, with variables exchanged at the nest’s lateral boundaries. Nesting can be sequentially applied, permitting refinement to very fine scales. WRF supports several nesting options, including

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Yanfeng Zhao, Donghai Wang, and Jianjun Xu

precipitation forecasts. On the other hand, as the resolution of the model became higher and higher, the accuracy of the initial conditions (IC) and lateral boundary conditions (LBC) became increasingly important, especially for the mid- and long-range forecast ( Li et al. 2013 ). Moreover, an accurate small-scale forecast can be produced by the regional model with the use of the higher-resolution and better parameterized schemes ( Grazzini and Vitart 2015 ), and it may not be produced by the coarser global

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Zhongshui Zou, Dongliang Zhao, Jun A. Zhang, Shuiqing Li, Yinhe Cheng, Haibin Lv, and Xin Ma

into this complex problem, most have focused on near-neutral conditions. To the best of our knowledge, only Nilsson et al. (2012) and Sullivan et al. (2014) have investigated the unstable boundary layer in the presence of swell. At low wind speeds, the buoyancy effect is another key factor that influences the ABL. Therefore, the focus of this study was to clarify the differences between the impact of swell on nonneutral and neutral ABLs. To address this issue, a constant flux model based on two

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