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Goodwin Gibbins and Joanna D. Haigh

1. Introduction a. Motivation The climate is, fundamentally, an entropy-producing system. The movement of energy from warmer regions, where it is supplied to the climate, to cooler regions, where it leaves, is an inevitable consequence of the second law of thermodynamics and drives the motion and activity of the climate. The energy transfers are mediated by a myriad of irreversible processes: for example, wind, rain, and radiation. Each process produces entropy, which must be exported from the

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Jenni L. Evans and Aviva Braun

: Bermuda subtropical storms . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 97 , 239 – 253 . Guishard , M. P. , J. L. Evans , and R. E. Hart , 2009 : Atlantic subtropical storms. Part II: Climatology . J. Climate , 22 , 3574 – 3594 . Hart , R. E. , 2003 : A cyclone phase space derived from thermal wind and thermal asymmetry . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 131 , 585 – 616 . Hebert , P. H. , and K. O. Poteat , 1975 : A satellite classification technique for subtropical cyclones. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-83

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Brant Liebmann, Ileana Bladé, George N. Kiladis, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Gabriel B. Senay, Dave Allured, Stephanie Leroux, and Chris Funk

1. Introduction By virtue of its geographical position, straddling the equator and extending into the subtropics of both hemispheres, Africa is a continent with large spatial contrasts in annual mean precipitation, epitomized by the presence of both some of the world’s largest deserts and an extensive tropical forest. Africa also possesses a wide variety of precipitation regimes with sharp spatial transitions between them. These include tropical rain forest climates with no dry season, purely

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E. Tyrlis and B. J. Hoskins

: Rossby wave breaking in the Southern Hemisphere wintertime upper troposphere. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 131 , 2623 – 2634 . Robertson , A. W. , and M. Ghil , 1999 : Large-scale weather regimes and local climate over the western United States. J. Climate , 12 , 1796 – 1813 . Thorncroft , C. D. , B. J. Hoskins , and M. E. McIntyre , 1993 : Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 119 , 17 – 55 . Tyrlis , E. , 2005 : Aspects of Northern

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Philip N. Schumacher, Gregory Frosig, Jason L. Selzler, and Robert A. Weisman

Achtor, T. H. , and Horn L. , 1986 : Spring season Colorado cyclones. Part I: Use of composites to relate upper and lower tropospheric wind fields. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 25 , 732 – 743 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0732:SSCCPI>2.0.CO;2 Barnes, S. L. , 1964 : A technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map analysis. J. Appl. Meteor. , 3 , 396 – 409 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0396:ATFMDI>2.0.CO;2 Barnes, S. L. , 1973 : Mesoscale objective analysis using weighted

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Yiwen Xu, Bin Zhu, Shuangshuang Shi, and Yong Huang

. Stevens , and T. A. Schroeder , 2007 : Inversion variability in the Hawaiian trade wind regime . J. Climate , 20 , 1145 – 1160 , . 10.1175/JCLI4033.1 Chan , C. , X. Xu , Y. Li , K. Wong , G. Ding , L. Chan , and X. Cheng , 2005 : Characteristics of vertical profiles and sources of PM 2.5 , PM 10 and carbonaceous species in Beijing . Atmos. Environ. , 39 , 5113 – 5124 , . 10.1016/j

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Sulian Thual, Boris Dewitte, Soon-Il An, Serena Illig, and Nadia Ayoub

characteristics remains a critical issue for the scientific community, as it continuously challenges established theoretical understanding of ENSO properties as well as the reliability of forecasting systems ( Kirtman and Schopf 1998 ; Neelin et al. 1998 ; McPhaden 2012 ). One unresolved issue regarding ENSO modulation is its relation to changes in the mean circulation of the equatorial Pacific. Figure 1a shows changes in mean temperatures at the equator after the climate shift of the 1970s, evidencing a

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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa, Osamu Arakawa, and Kenji Kamiguchi

typical of much of Central America and the Caribbean region ( Hastenrath 1978 ; Ropelewski and Halpert 1987 ; Nakaegawa et al. 2014b ). The northeast trade winds, which contribute to the Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ; Amador 1998 , 2008 ), are directed over the country by the North Atlantic subtropical high ( Taylor and Alfaro 2005 ). The climates of Panama fall into two main groups based on the Köppen climate classification system: group A includes tropical climates and group C includes mild

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R. Roca, J. Aublanc, P. Chambon, T. Fiolleau, and N. Viltard

1. Introduction The water and energy cycle in intertropical regions is critical to the energy budget of Earth’s climate and by consequence to its future evolution. Despite its importance, we still lack understanding of the underlying driving processes of the precipitation portion of the water budget (e.g., Sherwood et al. 2010 ). The radiative convective equilibrium theory seems to hold on a global scale and provide some guidance for the evolution of the planetary precipitation under

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Catherine M. Naud, Derek J. Posselt, and Susan C. van den Heever

with the conclusions of Schultz (2018) as one can only generalize about cold fronts in the aggregate by including an unspecified number of diverse frontal structures and characteristics. In a climatological framework, and for model evaluation (especially for climate models, which cannot be expected to reproduce specific fronts), our study is entirely appropriate. For more specific analyses of the frontal mesoscale structure and the dynamical evolution of fronts themselves, we agree that a more

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