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J. M. Futyan, J. E. Russell, and J. E. Harries

1. Introduction The concept of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) provides a means of quantifying the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget. The longwave (LW) component [LWCRF, Eq. (1a) ] measures the reduction in the emission of thermal radiation to space due to the presence of clouds, and the shortwave (SW) part [SWCRF, Eq. (1b) ] quantifies the increase in the reflection of solar radiation. The balance between these two counteracting effects on the overall energy balance determines

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S. Bony, K-M. Lau, and Y. C. Sud

-term temporal variations of the SST and the water vapor greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing. For example, positive correlations between SST, water vapor, and clear-sky greenhouse effect have been interpreted as a manifestation of the positive water vapor feedback ( Raval and Ramanathan 1989 ; Stephens and Greenwald 1991a ). Subsequently, Stephens and Greenwald (1991b) investigated the impact of clouds on the greenhouse effect, and Ramanathan and Collins (1991) analyzed relationships between

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Olivier Boucher

MAY 1995 BOUCHER 1403GCM Estimate of the Indirect Aerosol Forcing Using Satellite-Retrieved Cloud Droplet Effective Radii OLIVIER BOUCHERLaboratoire de Mdt~orologie Dynamique du CNRS, Ecole Normale Sup~rieure, Paris, France(Manuscript received 12 July 1994, in final form 8 November 1994)ABSTRACT In a recent paper, Han et al. analyzed satellite data radiances to retrieve cloud

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Xiaofan Li, C-H. Sui, K-M. Lau, and M-D. Chou

1. Introduction Cloud plays an important role in the hydrological cycle in the tropical atmosphere. Due to the scarcity of observation and the nonlinear nature, the interaction between tropical convection and large-scale circulation is often studied with cloud-resolving models. Recently, cloud-resolving models have been used to simulate deep convective response to the large-scale forcing observed in the Global Atmosphere Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) (e.g., Xu and

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Joseph Sedlar, Laura D. Riihimaki, Kathleen Lantz, and David D. Turner

temporal coverage, permitting study of the dominant cloud structures and how these have evolved in a changing climate. Clustering of global cloud regimes could also be analyzed jointly with the background weather state, indicating a linkage between synoptic weather forcing and cloud type ( Tselioudis et al. 2013 ; McDonald and Parsons 2018 ). However, 2D radiative–cloud-top distributions are created by combining satellite footprints, causing a coarser spatial resolution than the actual pixel

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Jennifer K. Fletcher and Christopher S. Bretherton

1. Introduction Large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) employ a diverse range of parameterizations for shallow (i.e., most weakly precipitating) and deep (i.e., heavily precipitating) cumulus (Cu) convection. Most cumulus parameterizations use a mass flux approach, which predicts the vertical structure and mass flux of cumulus up- and downdrafts in the parameterization. Mass flux schemes are popular because they can provide an internally consistent treatment of cloud turbulent mixing

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Jun Yang, W. Richard Peltier, and Yongyun Hu

enters the tropics ( section 3c ). Moreover, there have been some misleading comparisons in cloud forcings between the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the ECHAM5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPI-OM). Poulsen and Jacob (2004) found that the net cloud forcing (NCF, shortwave plus longwave) over the sea ice in FOAM to be as high as +30 W m −2 , while Voigt and Marotzke (2010) pointed out that NCF in ECHAM5/MPI-OM is close to zero. In the analysis of Poulsen et al. (2001 , 2002 ) and

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Byung-Ju Sohn and Eric A. Smith

15MAY 1992 SOHN AND SMITH 845The Significance of Cloud-Radiative Forcing to the General Circulation on Climate Time Scales--A Satellite Interpretation BYUNG-JU SOHN* AND ERIC A. SMITHDepartment of Meteorology and Supercomputer Computations Research Institute, Florida State University, TaIlahassee, Florida(Manuscript received 8 January 1991, in final form 27 August

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Geeta G. Persad, Yi Ming, and V. Ramaswamy

δT s accurately from RFP (or fixed-SST forcing, as it is termed in that paper). RFP has similarly been shown to be an excellent predictor of δT s for the model used here ( Ming et al. 2010 ). Yet, by allowing the atmosphere to adjust to the initial perturbation, RFP may be prone to uncertainties in parameterized physics (e.g., moist convection, large-scale cloud, and boundary layer schemes), thus rendering it unfit for model intercomparison ( Lohmann et al. 2009 ). This study seeks to add

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Hanna Joos

) effect on the Earth–atmosphere system ( Ramanathan et al. 1989 ; Klein and Hartmann 1993 ). Typically, in deep convective clouds, the greenhouse and albedo effects nearly cancel each other leading to a small net cloud forcing. Marine stratocumulus clouds lead to a strong cooling due to their high reflectivity, low altitude, and occurrence over the dark ocean surface. In contrast, high ice clouds with cold cloud tops exert a warming effect as they trap outgoing longwave radiation while being mostly

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