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Wilco Hazeleger, Richard Seager, Mark A. Cane, and Naomi H. Naik

the globally averaged zero net radiative flux requirement at the top of the atmosphere. Nevertheless, it needs to be remembered that the tropical ocean heat transport varies mostly as a result of mechanical forcing of the ocean circulation and diapycnal mixing. The changes in mechanical forcing that we apply are realistic and the changes in ocean heat transport will also be realistic unless there are major changes in solar radiation, cloud cover, or ITF heat transport. The experiments will provide

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Yign Noh, Hong Sik Min, and Siegfried Raasch

the spacing between cells ranges from two to hundreds of meters. Sonar observation of bubble clouds produced by breaking wind waves manifested the streaks with a variety of scales, merging at characteristic Y junctions to form large circulation cells ( Zedel and Farmer 1991 ; Thorpe 1992 ). The streaks are usually aligned downwind and propagate to the right of the main wind direction, implying the Coriolis effect. Weller and Price (1988) also observed that Langmuir circulation is able to

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Patrick J. Luyten, John E. Jones, and Roger Proctor

isopycnals. Further details about the governing equations, numerical methods, and discretization schemes are found in Luyten et al. (1999) . Surface stress and heat flux are calculated as a function of wind and sea-air temperature difference using the bulk formulas of Kondo (1975) . The meteorological forcing data have been provided at 3-hourly intervals by the U.K. Meteorological Office, except for cloud coverage, which is obtained from satellite data with a daily value taken to be uniform over the

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Nathalie Sennéchael, Claude Frankignoul, and Mark A. Cane

expected parameter range. There are many sources of errors in the estimatesappearing in (9). The wind stress and cloud data usedto force the model have significant errors, resulting inmodel response uncertainties with large correlationscales, particularly in the equatorial waveguide. Theobserved SST is noisy as well, although to a lesser extent. When the best-fit calculation is based on a meanseasonal cycle as in this paper, there are also samplingerrors that reflect the interannual variability and

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S. S. Drijfhout, P. de Vries, K. Döös, and A. C. Coward

watermass conversion is discussed. A theoretical discussion on the eddy-induced changes is given in section 4 . Section 5 presents the spread and mixing of particles and the distribution of Lagrangian timescales. In section 6 we summarize and present our conclusions. 2. Methodology Data have been employed from model years 9.0 to 12.0 of the OCCAM integration. The model has 36 levels in the vertical and a uniform horizontal resolution of ¼° by ¼°. The wind forcing was defined from 6-hourly European

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Edwin K. Schneider and Uma S. Bhatt

significant uncertainty in the details of the forcing for the salinity diffusivities. This uncertainty is mitigated, however, by the lack of sensitivity of the diffusivity estimate and the independence of the deep ocean estimate from errors due to the neglect of runoff. Also, the precipitation and evaporation fields appear to be reasonably realistic when compared to independent climatologies or to proxy data such as the observed climatological cloud distribution. As a result, the estimate of the deep

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Dong Wang and Tobias Kukulka

1. Introduction Langmuir turbulence (LT) is an important turbulent process in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), which is driven by the Craik–Leibovich (CL) vortex force due to the wave–current interaction ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ). The structure of LT features coherent vortex pairs, which generates strong surface convergent regions and downwelling jets that significantly enhance vertical mixing ( Thorpe 2004 ; Weller and Price 1988 ; Farmer and Li 1995 ). Previous studies have used

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Yueng-Djern Lenn, Teresa K. Chereskin, Janet Sprintall, and Julie L. McClean

balance is thought to be governed by the vertical stress divergence, the eddy momentum flux divergence, and the Coriolis force ( Johnson and Bryden 1989 , hereafter JB89 ; Olbers 1998 ). Within this balance, mesoscale eddies are simultaneously implicated in the lateral transfer of heat across the ACC and the downward transmission of momentum (i.e., Bryden 1979 ; de Szoeke and Levine 1981 ; JB89 ; Hughes 2005 ). Apart from its impact on ACC dynamics, the meridional eddy heat flux is of interest

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M. A. Morales Maqueda and A. J. Willmott

ice velocity at the polynya edge, respectively. If the frazil ice velocity field is specified, h R can be obtained from the continuity equation for frazil ice depth, h, subject to the boundary condition h = 0 at the coast. The theory of Pease (1987) provides expressions for the steady-state width and the equilibrium timescale of a polynya under constant forcing. The steady-state polynya width is R oe = HU / F. The equilibrium timescale is a small multiple (3 or 4, say) of t ce = H

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Eric W. Uhlhorn and Lynn K. Shay

. In Part I ( Uhlhorn and Shay 2012 , hereafter Part I ) of a two-part study, further analysis revealed a negative kinetic energy (KE) response to direct forcing by Hurricane Lili (2002). Considering the observational errors, at a minimum, no significant change in OML mechanical energy was detected within the LC near the storm track at two inertial periods (IP) after storm passage. This result directly contradicts many previous observational (e.g., Black et al. 1988 ; Shay et al. 1989 , 1990

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