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Liping Zhang and Thomas L. Delworth

1. Introduction The observed 1976/77 climate shift over the North Pacific Ocean featured a decadal-scale transition from one pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies to a comparable pattern of opposite sign ( Mantua et al. 1997 ). Many studies have examined the potential mechanisms influencing this decadal variability (e.g., Deser and Blackmon 1995 ; Schneider et al. 1999 ; Seager et al. 2001 ; Wu et al. 2005 ) and its potential climate impacts (e.g., Mantua and Hare 2002

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Xiaofan Li, Zeng-Zhen Hu, and Bohua Huang

.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<0122:AMFTRO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<0122:AMFTRO>2.0.CO;2 Álvarez-García , F. , M. Latif , and A. Biastoch , 2008 : On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability . J. Climate , 21 , 3433 – 3452 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1800.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI1800.1 Álvarez-García , F. , M. J. OrtizBevia , and W. D. CabosNarvaez , 2011 : On the structure and teleconnections of North Atlantic decadal variability . J. Climate , 24 , 2209 – 2223 , https

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Philip Sura, Matthew Newman, and Michael A. Alexander

variability. J. Climate , 19 , 521 – 534 . Neelin , J. D. , and W. Weng , 1999 : Analytical prototypes for ocean–atmosphere interaction at midlatitudes. Part I: Coupled feedbacks as a sea surface temperature dependent stochastic process. J. Climate , 12 , 2037 – 2049 . Newman , M. , G. P. Compo , and M. A. Alexander , 2003a : ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate , 16 , 3853 – 3857 . Newman , M. , P. D. Sardeshmukh , C. R. Winkler , and J

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Arun Kumar and Caihong Wen

1. Introduction Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is one of the dominant modes of sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the North Pacific and has been associated with various biological and physical aspects of variability over this region ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Liu 2012 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Traditionally PDO has been defined based on the variability associated with SSTs ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Wen et al. 2014 ). Although having a component of variability on a decadal time scale that

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Mengrong Ding, Pengfei Lin, Hailong Liu, and Fei Chai

. Some of the studies report the interannual and decadal variabilities of eddy activities in the North Pacific ( Qiu and Chen 2005 , 2013 ; Yoshida et al. 2011 ; He et al. 2016 ; Sun et al. 2016 ; Wang et al. 2016 ; Chow et al. 2017 ; Yang et al. 2017 ). Qiu and Chen (2013) detect that eddy kinetic energy (EKE) within the 18°–28°N band shows decadally varying signals concurrently, which is correlated with the decadal changes of upper-ocean eastward shear signals. Yang et al. (2017) reveal

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Niklas Schneider

indicates the southward shift of the KE jet. Observational (e.g., Miller et al. 1998 ; Deser et al. 1999 ; Lysne and Deser 2002 ; Qiu and Chen 2005 ) and numerical studies (e.g., Seager et al. 2001 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ) suggest that decadal variability in the KE is primary forced by basin-wide wind stress curl changes with the KE lagging by several years. Lysne and Deser (2002) showed that decadal subsurface temperature variations in the KE region are related to the 4-yr leading wind stress

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J. Mauro Vargas-Hernández, Susan E. Wijffels, Gary Meyers, André Belo do Couto, and Neil J. Holbrook

1. Introduction Understanding the decadal-to-multidecadal variability of the upper-ocean thermal structure is essential to improve our understanding of the ocean’s role in coupled ocean–atmosphere climate dynamics, including climate variability modes and their mechanistic separation from long-term multidecadal trends. Importantly, better understanding of decadal climate modes of variability, for which the upper-ocean temperature (and density) structure plays a critical role in defining the time

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Lareef Zubair and Janaki Chandimala

); that it may be driven by decadal variations in the Atlantic circulation ( Chang et al. 2001 ) and by decadal variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole ( Ashok et al. 2001 ); or that this weakening may be attributed simply to stochasticity ( Gershunov et al. 2001 ). In this paper, the decadal variability of the ENSO influences on streamflow and rainfall in the Kelani catchment in Sri Lanka is investigated. The Kelani catchment rainfall is significantly affected by large-scale phenomenon. The low

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Bo Qiu and Shuiming Chen

source for the enhanced eddy activity. What is surprising from Fig. 2a is that the decadally modulating eddy activities have opposite signs in the upstream versus downstream KE regions. In other words, when the mesoscale eddy variability was enhanced in 1996–2001 and 2006–09 in the upstream region west of 152°E, the downstream EKE level east of 152°E was in fact reduced. This out-of-phase relationship between the upstream and downstream eddy activity levels can also be verified if we compare the

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Yoshiyuki Kajikawa and Bin Wang

broad impact on the East Asian weather in boreal summer ( Nitta 1987 ) and the Indian Ocean climate variability ( Kajikawa et al. 2003 ). Recently, the interdecadal change of the western North Pacific monsoon, including the SCSSM, has been discussed ( Kwon et al. 2005 , 2007 ). Kwon et al. (2005) found a significant decadal change in the East Asian summer monsoon and its relationship with the western North Pacific monsoon before and after (inclusive) 1994. Yim et al. (2008) found a similar

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