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Takenari Kinoshita, Kaoru Sato, Kentaro Ishijima, Masayuki Takigawa, and Yousuke Yamashita

( Brewer 1949 ; Dobson 1956 ). On the other hand, in the steady state, these traditional residual mean meridional and vertical flows are balanced with forcings because of the wave activity flux divergence and diabatic heating rate divided by , respectively: where is the Coriolis parameter, denotes the wave activity flux divergence, and Q is the diabatic heating rate. The relation between the residual mean meridional flow and wave activity flux divergence is used for the concept of downward

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Justin P. Stachnik, Courtney Schumacher, and Paul E. Ciesielski

1. Introduction It is well known that clouds play an important role in controlling the daily weather, yet the aggregate effects and associated climate feedbacks of cloud systems remain less understood. These feedbacks are especially relevant in the tropics, where the total diabatic heating produced by clouds and precipitating systems directly couples these phenomena to the large-scale circulation. Variations in the magnitude and spatial distribution of heating from tropical cloud clusters

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D. J. Kirshbaum, T. M. Merlis, J. R. Gyakum, and R. McTaggart-Cowan

and generating diabatic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that interact with dry baroclinic PV anomalies (e.g., Hoskins et al. 1985 ; Davis and Emanuel 1991 ; De Vries et al. 2010 ). In the vertical, a diabatically generated PV tendency dipole straddles the active cloud layer, with cyclonic tendencies below and anticyclonic tendencies above. Using the semigeostrophic equations with parameterized condensational heating, Emanuel et al. (1987) found that such heating led to faster wave growth

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Michael J. Reeder, Thomas Spengler, and Clemens Spensberger

as it crosses the SST front. Conversely, when the temperature gradients have the opposite sign, differential sensible heating will weaken the atmospheric front as it crosses the SST front. However, Masunaga et al. (2020b , a) have shown recently that in the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, and Agulhas Current region, diabatic heating most strongly affects weak and quasi-stationary fronts, making the general applicability of the arguments of Parfitt et al. (2016 , 2017a) to the more common developing

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Olli M. Turpeinen

seem to be of prime importance, asthe shortening of the spinup process remains practically unchanged ~arclless of whether the model condensationscheme or the generation function is used.1. Introduction In a companion paper [Turpeinen et al. (1989),hereafter referred to as TEA], a method of incorporating a satellite-inferred diabatic heating into the implicit normal-mode initialization (INMI) of the Canadian regional finite-element (RFE) model was described. The diabatic heating (hereafter called

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Bas Crezee, Hanna Joos, and Heini Wernli

study the importance of latent heating for cyclone intensification and stressed the nonlinear relation between dry dynamics and latent heat release. Ahmadi-Givi et al. (2004) looked in detail how the different diabatic anomalies interact and showed in a case study that the upper-level PV anomaly was responsible for initiating cyclogenesis, but the low-level positive PV anomaly was crucial in the intensification phase of the cyclone. Using dropsonde and aircraft observations of a strong North

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James B. Polly and William B. Rossow

1. Introduction Cloud processes in extratropical cyclones lie at the intersection of the well-developed theory of dry baroclinic waves and feedbacks on the dynamics by diabatic heating due to radiation and precipitation. The interaction between waves and clouds is a major source of uncertainty in climate and weather prediction ( Bony et al. 2006 ). Baroclinic waves play a key role in the meridional transport of energy and water ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ), and the effects of cloud heating on

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Haiyan Teng and Grant Branstator

the Niño-3.4 index is replaced with local precipitation anomalies in 5° × 5° latitude–longitude boxes over the tropical ocean. We then plot at each box location the percentage change in probability in the form for both CAM5 and CESM1 ( Figs. 8a,c ). To further simplify our results, we mainly focus on precipitation anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean because we find the associated diabatic heating anomalies in the Pacific are more effective in forcing ridges near the west coast than those in

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Hien X. Bui and Eric D. Maloney

ratio of vertical moisture gradient and vertical dry static energy gradient. Under global warming, single GCM studies have shown that an increase of lower-tropospheric moisture gradient leads to an increase of α that produces a larger vertical moisture advection per unit diabatic heating, thus supporting an enhancement of MJO precipitation anomalies (e.g., Wolding and Maloney 2015 ; Wolding et al. 2016 , 2017 ). The effect of increasing static stability, however, partially cancels this increase

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Ji Nie and Adam H. Sobel

also can induce vertical motion associated with geostrophic adjustment to convective heating, thus feeding back to the QG vertical motion. We call this modeling framework the column QG (CQG) framework, since it models the states of an atmospheric column under QG dynamics. Compared to conventional single-column modeling approaches in which the large-scale vertical motion is prescribed and largely determines local convection, the CQG approach calculates diabatic heating and the associated vertical

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