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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Alois Holzer, and Pieter Groenemeijer

The threat of tornadoes in Europe is not widely recognized, despite causing injuries, fatalities, and damages. There was a time when tornado research in Europe was more active than in the United States. Before the beginning of the Second World War, European scientists and meteorologists were actively researching tornadoes (e.g., Peltier 1840 ; Reye 1872 ; Weyher 1889 ; Wegener 1917 ; Letzmann 1931 ), while the word “tornado” was banned by the United States Weather Bureau ( Galway 1992

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Christin Eriksson, Anders Omstedt, James E. Overland, Donald B. Percival, and Harold O. Mofjeld

previously in other studies; they are also some of the longest historical climatological records in existence. The other series—ice breakup in Mälaren, Sweden; Torneå, Finland; Riga, Latvia; and Tallinn, Estonia ( Figs. 2d–g ; Table 1 ); winter air temperature in Tallinn ( Fig. 2h ; Table 1 ); and SLP and winter air temperature for Northern Europe (gridded data, not shown but references are given in Table 1 )—are used to confirm and support our main results and are not described as completely as the

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

1. Introduction In recent years, there has been a revival in the study of European tornadoes and their impact (e.g., Antonescu et al. 2017 ; Taszarek and Gromadzki 2017 ; Shikhov and Chernokulsky 2018 ; Brázdil et al. 2019 ). This revival followed a period starting at the end of the Second World War that was characterized by a relative lack of interest on this subject from European researchers and meteorologists. Despite being an important and relevant topic of research, there has been no

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Christophe Cassou, Laurent Terray, and Adam S. Phillips

1. Link between summer North Atlantic weather regimes and extreme warm days Europe has been rapidly warming up since the late 1970s ( Jones and Moberg 2003 ). Concurrently, extreme weather events have become more frequent over most of the continent ( Klein Tank and Können 2003 ). The last in date is the summer 2003 heat wave (e.g., Schär et al. 2004 ) responsible for massive overmortality and tremendous socioeconomic impacts in many European countries. Large-scale synoptic pressure systems

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

1. Introduction Our current knowledge of the climatology of tornadoes in Europe has been built from historical collections of tornado reports (e.g., Peltier 1840 ; Wegener 1917 ), case studies (e.g., Hepites 1887 ; Lemon et al. 2003 ), and local climatologies (e.g., Snitkovskii 1987 ; Dessens and Snow 1989 ). Unfortunately, these datasets were limited by inconsistencies in observational networks and reporting practices across Europe and have only allowed a simplified and inaccurate

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Richard Fay

OCTOBER 1958RICHARD FAY467SOME VARIATIONS IN EUROPEAN CLIMATIC TEMPERATURE By Richard Fay United States Weather Bureau(Manuscript received 25 January 1958)ABSTRACTAn attempt is made to depict mean circulation patterns associated with observed-temperature climatechanges in northwest Europe during the period 1780-1930. Use is made of observed pressure gradients associated with warm and cold seasons and of computed annual wind directions at several stations. Results arepresented as possible

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Pieter Groenemeijer and Thilo Kühne

1. Introduction Although many tornadoes take place in Europe every year, few scholars have studied them on a European level since the work Wind- und Wasserhosen in Europa ( Wind- and Waterspouts in Europe ; Wegener 1917 ) by well-known geophysicist, polar researcher, and meteorologist Alfred Wegener. He estimated the annual number of tornadoes in Europe to be “at least 100.” We will show that this estimate was correct. Peterson (1992) notes that during the early twentieth century there was

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Asko Huuskonen, Elena Saltikoff, and Iwan Holleman

The European Operational Program for Exchange of Weather Radar Information (OPERA) has worked to improve harmonization of radar systems and measurements since 1999 and has recently started production of network-wide radar mosaics. Weather crosses national borders, and hence the exchange of weather observations is most important. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has advanced the exchange since its founding in the 1870s. Europe belongs to the WMO regional area VI, and in this area 30

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Kieran J. Lynch, David J. Brayshaw, and Andrew Charlton-Perez

forecast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) medium-range forecast loses almost all skill after 5–6 days. There is, however, more opportunity for prediction over longer time-averaging windows. For example, Rodwell and Doblas-Reyes (2006) explain that by taking a weekly time average over the meteorological variable of interest, the unpredictable short-term fluctuations are reduced and predictive skill arises from slow changes in the boundary forcing. Weekly

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Jeffrey Shaman

1. Introduction A considerable body of literature exists documenting the seasonal covariability between El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and weather conditions over Europe. Observational studies indicate an association present during boreal winter between ENSO variability and European surface meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and sea level pressure ( van Loon and Madden 1981 ; Fraedrich 1994 ; Pozo-Vázquez et al. 2001 ; Moron and Gouirand 2003 ; Moron and

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