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Andrzej Ceglarz, Rasmus E. Benestad, and Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

force defending the industrial capitalist system. This framework integrates two principles: 1) climate contrarianism can be predicted by variables aligning with ideological or material positions within the capitalist system and 2) the strength of these ideology-based positions depends on the strength of the contrarian countermovement ( McCright et al. 2016b ). On the basis of presented insights and by taking a qualitative approach, we would like to depict how climate contrarianism functions in the

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Josyane Ronchail, Marianne Cohen, María Alonso-Roldán, Hélène Garcin, Benjamin Sultan, and Stéphane Angles

grid cells (those located in the Guadalquivir valley and the northwestern part of Sierra Mágina), while they are negative in the southern and eastern ones. Fig . 3. Seasonal variations (%) of simulated rainfall between the future (2030–50 and 2080–2100) and the present (1980–2000), using the SRES A1B scenario, by grid cell (ENSEMBLE-RCMs values are in the right columns of the blocks) and by RCM (ENSEMBLE-GRIDS values are in the bottom lines of the blocks). The global models (GCMs) that force the

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Joshua J. Hatzis, Jennifer Koch, and Harold E. Brooks

Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 212–219, . Diffenbaugh , N. S. , R. J. Trapp , and H. Brooks , 2008 : Does global warming influence tornado activity? Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union , 89 , 553 – 554 , . 10.1029/2008EO530001 Diffenbaugh , N. S. , M. Scherer , and R. J. Trapp , 2013 : Robust increases in severe thunderstorm environments in response to greenhouse forcing . Proc. Natl. Acad

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Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, Benjamin Felzer, Emily Pitek, and Mingkai Jiang

as the cold factor score and the thermal stress measure were not predictive. Another reason why the precipitation variables may be predictive of high god beliefs independent from resource stress is that weather can have detrimental impacts not directly related to food supply, such as impeding travel, destroying homes, or causing personal accidents. These events can invoke in humans the desire to seek supernatural aid and comfort. Also, weather is a powerful natural force outside human control, a

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Nadine Fleischhut, Stefan M. Herzog, and Ralph Hertwig

well laypeople are able to connect wind speeds to their corresponding labels or potential impacts. We administered two sets of items on windstorms. In one set, the items presented verbal labels for winds of different severity (ranging from gale to hurricane force, corresponding to forces 8–12 on the Beaufort scale), and respondents were asked to state the wind speeds described by each label. In the other set, the items described the corresponding observable impacts (e.g., outdoor furniture blown

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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

negative impacts to human systems, stormwater can carry biological contaminants into estuaries, forcing the closure of shellfish beds and beaches. In communities with combined sewer systems, excessive stormwater can cause the release of raw sewage into waterways. The timetables associated with different impacts run the gamut from those occurring immediately to many years after a flood event. Climate change and variability are predicted to impact nearly every aspect of the hydrologic cycle, complicating

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Calum G. Turvey and Megan K. Mclaurin

forcing and time-integrated NDVI of grasslands over the U.S. northern and central Great Plains . Remote Sens. Environ. , 65 , 25 – 37 . Zhou, L. , Tucker C. J. , Kaufmann R. K. , Slayback D. , Shabanov N. V. , and Myneni R. B. , 2001 : Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999 . J. Geophys. Res. , 106 ( D17 ), 20 069 – 20 083 . 1 Index-based insurance is a generic term used to describe insurance policies with

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Jonathan B. Mason and Jason C. Senkbeil

in a major severe weather outbreak, “from either numerous intense and long-tracked tornadoes or a long-lived derecho-producing thunderstorm complex that produces hurricane-force wind gusts and widespread damage” ( National Weather Service 2015 ). There are several other SPC products with similar objectives. In addition to the categorical convective outlooks discussed above, the SPC also issues probabilistic convectional outlooks up to 3 days in advance of an event. These are more descriptive of

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S. Niggol Seo

agricultural systems in Africa . J. Agric. Sci. , 149 , 437 – 449 . Seo, S. N. , and Mendelsohn R. , 2008 : Measuring impacts and adaptations to climate change: A structural Ricardian model of African livestock management . Agric. Econ. , 38 , 151 – 165 . Shanahan, T. M. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa . Science , 324 , 377 – 380 . Shiller, R. , 2003 : The New Financial Order: Risk in the 21st Century. Princeton University Press, 384 pp

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Megan L. White and J. Anthony Stallins

. Faust , and M. Steuer , 2013 : Rising variability in thunderstorm-related U.S. losses as a reflection of changes in large-scale thunderstorm forcing . Wea. Climate Soc. , 5 , 317 – 331 , doi: 10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00023.1 . 10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00023.1 Schmidlin , T. W. , B. O. Hammer , Y. Ono , and P. S. King , 2009 : Tornado shelter-seeking behavior and tornado shelter options among mobile home residents in the United States . Nat. Hazards , 48 , 191 – 201 , doi: 10.1007/s11069-008-9257-z

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