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Alan P. Leonardi, Steven L. Morey, and James J. O'Brien

propagating response, with a phase speed twice that of nondispersive Rossby waves ( C = 2 C R ). White (1977) , however, did not include either an alongshore wind or equatorially forced, coastally propagating Kelvin waves. These limitations can be avoided by moving to a point west of the eastern boundary layer and using observed thermocline variations as the boundary condition for the model. Using this technique, Meyers (1979) successfully separated Ekman pumping variability observed along 12°N from

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Weiwei Fu

Institute (DMI) scientific reports ( Berg and Poulsen 2011 ; http://www.dmi.dk/fileadmin/Rapporter/SR/sr12-03.pdf ). In this study, the model was set up with a horizontal resolution of about 10 km for the whole Baltic Sea. In Danish waters (53°35′15″–57°35′45″N, 9°20′25″–14°49′35″E), the horizontal resolution is increased to about 1.8 km and the finer grids are two-way nested with the coarse grids for the Baltic Sea ( Fig. 1 ). The two-way nesting technique is similar to Barth et al. (2006) and

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P. Wadhams, F. Parmiggiani, and G. de Carolis

satellite remote sensing. In this paper we describe theory and experiments which define the limits within which such a technique might be useful. b. Wave propagation in frazil–pancake icefields In open water the wavenumber k of a wave of angular frequency ω (= 2 π / T where T is wave period) obeys the familiar dispersion relation k = ω 2 / g, (1) where g is acceleration due to gravity, if water depth is great compared to the wavelength λ = (2 π / k ). Under ice, let Φ 2 be the velocity

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H. Bonekamp, G. J. Komen, A. Sterl, P. A. E. M. Janssen, P. K. Taylor, and M. J. Yelland

-linear theory of wind–wave generation applied to wave forecasting. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 21 , 1631 – 1642 . Janssen , J. , . 1999 : On the effect of ocean waves on the kinetic energy balance and consequences for the inertial dissipation technique. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 29 , 530 – 534 . Janssen , J. , . 2001 : Ocean waves do affect the kinetic energy balance. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 2537 – 2544 . Janssen , J. , and P. Viterbo , 1996 : Ocean waves and the atmospheric climate. J

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Ichiro Fukumori, and Robert N. Miller

substantial errors in the Geosat data and the simplicity of the present model prevents a reliablewind estimate from being made.1. Introduction In a recent paper by Fu et al. ( 1991 ), it was reportedthat about 23% of the signal variance of the Geosat sealevel observation in the tropical Pacific Ocean couldbe explained by a simple model of freely propagatingequatorially trapped waves. The model solution thatbest described the observation was obtained throughthe use of the Kalman filter technique. The

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Matthew H. Alford

near-real time, and the processing time for the flux calculation is low, these techniques may be of use in planning cruise locations and times. Using the NCEP forecast wind fields, “internal swell forecasts” may even be possible. Acknowledgments This work was supported by M. A.'s startup funding at the Applied Physics Laboratory, and by a SECNAV/CNO grant. I am indebted to Mike Gregg for this support. NCEP 4× Daily Global Reanalyses data were provided by the NOAA–CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center

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Karl Bumke, Michael Schlundt, John Kalisch, Andreas Macke, and Henry Kleta

method. Besides the direct eddy correlation method, the ID technique represents an approach to derive turbulent flux estimates (e.g., Fairall and Larsen 1986 ), utilizing characteristics of the inertial subrange of atmospheric velocity and turbulence spectra. Its application has several advantages compared to the direct eddy correlation method; to name but one, it is rather insensitive to the sensors’ acceleration caused by the ship’s motions due to waves. Thus, using the ID technique, there is no

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Karl Bumke, U. Karger, and K. Uhlig

mounted on the same crossbar, only data where the relative wind direction was within a range of ±40° of the bow, were used. Sensible heat fluxes were also estimated using the cross-correlation method. The cross-correlation technique is based on measurements of the exchanges in the atmospheric surface layer, where the fluctuating vertical velocity transports air properties up and down. The sensible heat flux H is defined by H = ρc p 〈 wT 〉, (11) where c p is the specific heat at constant pressure

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Richard Everson, Peter Cornillon, Lawrence Sirovich, and Andrew Webber

Banks and in the shelf and slope waters. Twomodes describing the meandering of the Gulf Stream areused to obtain the average phase velocity and wavelengthof meanders during spring 1985. The EOF procedure is closely related to factor analysis ( Harman 1960 ), principal components analysis ( Hotelling 1933 ), and singular value decomposition ( Goluband Loan 1983 ; Moler and Morrison 1983 ). The technique, which has a long history ( Sirovich and Everson1992 ; Stewart 1993 ) in the guise of the

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Alexander V. Babanin, Michael L. Banner, Ian R. Young, and Mark A. Donelan

modification to the near-surface aerodynamics can result in enhanced wave-coherent momentum and energy fluxes from the wind to the waves. A detailed description of the AUSWEX field measurement site, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is given in Donelan et al. (2005 , hereinafter Part I ), while Donelan et al. (2006 , hereinafter Part II ) describes the prevailing environmental conditions and presents important new results on the physics and parameterization of the spectral wind-input source

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