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Jingjing Dou, Yingchun Wang, Robert Bornstein, and Shiguang Miao

surrounding rural areas), depending on which urban modifications dominate at a given moment. a. Urban climate Structural and land-cover differences between urban and rural areas, as well as anthropogenic heat sources and aerosol layers, can produce urban 2-m temperatures warmer than those over surrounding rural regions (e.g., Bornstein 1968 ; Stewart and Oke 2012 ). This difference between urban and rural stations was first observed by Howard (1833) in London and is referred to as an urban heat island

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A. M. E. Winguth and B. Kelp

1. Introduction Urban areas are generally warmer than rural locations ( Howard 1833 ), a phenomenon known as the urban heat island effect (UHI; Oke 1973 ). The urban heat island is commonly estimated by the difference in temperature measurements between stations in urbanized areas and rural areas (e.g., Chandler 1961 , 1965 ; Oke 1973 , 1982 , 1987 ). Within this context, rural areas are defined as landscapes that are predominantly natural and not covered with buildings, parking areas

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Fred M. Vukovich and William J. King

VOL. 19, NO. 7 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY JULY 1980A Theoretical Study of the St. Louis Heat Island: Comparisons Between Observed Data and Simulation Results on the Urban Heat Island Circulation FRED M. VUKOVICH AND WILLIAM J, KING Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709(Manuscript received 27 December 1978, in final form 11 November 1979)ABSTRACT A three

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Barry H. Lynn, Toby N. Carlson, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Richard Goldberg, Leonard Druyan, Jennifer Cox, Stuart Gaffin, Lily Parshall, and Kevin Civerolo

1. Introduction High-density metropolitan areas are known for their “urban heat island” (UHI) effect that raises nighttime temperatures in dense cityscapes in response to daytime heating of city surfaces. During sunny daytime hours, reduced evaporation of city surfaces coupled with the thermal properties of the city building and paving materials (e.g., Myrup 1969 ; Kunkel et al. 1996 ; Roberts et al. 2006 ; Kusaka and Kimura 2004 ) allows the cityscape to absorb heat, which is then emitted

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Robert D. Bornstein

AuGusx 1968 ROBERT D. BORNSTE1N 575Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York City~ ROBERT D. BORNSTEINNew York University(Manuscript received 19 October 1967, in revised form 8 May 1968)ABSTRACT Differences in the temperature fields through the lowest 700 m of the atmosphere in and around NewYork City during the hours near sunrise are analyzed. Data were

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Timothy J. Bauer

1. Introduction Urban heat island (UHI) effects have been a focus of scientific studies since the late 1960s ( Lowry 1967 ; Bornstein 1968 ; Oke 1987 ; Bowers et al. 1994 ). The increased skin and surface air temperatures due to the presence of tall structures that retain heat, large expanses of concrete and asphalt, lack of vegetation, and reduction in evapotranspiration can lead to heat conditions dangerous to urban residents ( Oleson et al. 2011 ; Hanna et al. 2011 ; Ryu and Baik 2012

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Feng Hsiao, Yi-Leng Chen, and David Eugene Hitzl

thermally forced convection due to elevated heat sources over Dominica (mountaintops ~1.5 km) during a weak wind day (<2 m s −1 ). Their sensitivity tests confirm that thermal forcing drives convection over the island interior due to localized lifting, which is caused by upslope flow and convergence over the island interior (their Fig. 9). During summer trade wind weather on Oahu, there are considerable spatial variations in airflow, thermodynamic variables, and rainfall throughout the diurnal cycle

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Sarah Chapman, Marcus Thatcher, Alvaro Salazar, James E. M. Watson, and Clive A. McAlpine

1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) effect is a prominent example of how human modification of the land surface affects the local and regional climate ( Pielke et al. 2016 ). However, the geographic focus has been mainly on temperate cities rather than tropical or subtropical cities ( Arnfield 2003 ; Roth 2007 ; Karam et al. 2010 ; Stewart 2011 ). This is an important limitation because tropical and subtropical cities are growing faster than cities at higher latitudes ( Roth 2007

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Keith Oleson

understanding urban effects on climate and weather (e.g., as reviewed by Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1988 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Collier 2006 ; Seto and Shepherd 2009 ). The urban heat island (UHI), a phenomenon describing the fact that urban areas are generally warmer than the surrounding rural areas was first recognized by Luke Howard in 1820 as described by Landsberg (1981) in his authoritative review of the field of urban climatology ( Oke 1991 ). The causes of the UHI were investigated in a series of

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Sachiho A. Adachi, Fujio Kimura, Hiroyuki Kusaka, Tomoshige Inoue, and Hiroaki Ueda

; JMA (2011) ]. The frequency of extremely hot days (daily Tmax ≧ 35°C) and nights (daily Tmin ≧ 25°C) is increasing remarkably ( JMA 2011 ). There is great concern over the effects of heat stress on inhabitants of the city because of the ramifications of both global warming associated with the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases and urban heat islands. For the local-scale climate, such as in the TMA, reductions in the effects of urban heat islands are expected to contribute to the mitigation

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