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Albert F. Kurbatskii

full prognostic equation for the temperature variance, allowing a countergradient transport of heat in the upper half of the turbulent layer. This paper proposes and evaluates a turbulence closure scheme that has been implemented to make the model more useful for stably stratified flows and air pollution applications. A simple theoretical model of the nocturnal urban heat island cannot be applied to the case of near-calm conditions when the ambient wind speed approaches zero, because in low

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A. Cenedese and P. Monti

Introduction Urban heat islands (hereinafter UHIs) are defined as the warmth produced by cities [see Oke (1995) and Fernando et al. (2001) for comprehensive reviews]. The difference in terrain coverage of urban and rural areas is mainly responsible for nighttime and daytime urban–rural temperature differences that can reach, in the case of large cities, 10°C or more. During the day, concrete and asphalt store larger amounts of incoming solar radiation than those typically retained by grassy

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Jong-Jin Baik

MARCH 1992 BAlK 291Response of a Stably Stratified Atmosphere to Low-Level Heatingw An Application to the Heat Island Problem JONG-JIN BAlKUniversities Space Research Association, Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland(Manuscript received 13 March 1991, in final form 31 July 1991

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Christopher P. Loughner, Dale J. Allen, Da-Lin Zhang, Kenneth E. Pickering, Russell R. Dickerson, and Laura Landry

1. Introduction Urbanization can alter local climate and form an urban heat island (UHI; Landsberg 1981 ). Altering land use by creating impervious urban surfaces causes increased runoff, decreased evapotranspiration, increased solar radiation absorption, additional release of anthropogenic heat, and changes in surface friction, which results in changes in near-surface air temperature, humidity, wind speeds, low-level convergence/divergence, convection, and precipitation (e.g., Oke and Cleugh

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Lawrence C. Nkemdirim

airborne measurements of wind speed and lapse rate at theedge of the city, upwind. Regression analysis showed that an empirical model based on the ratio oflapse rate to wind speed was not as effective in estimating urban heat island intensity in Calgary as amodel based only on lapse rate but was superior to one based on wind speed.1. Introduction The surficial urban heat island has been a subjectof many studies over the years. A number of thesestudies have included numerical models designed

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Jason M. Keeler and David A. R. Kristovich

. Emissions from Chicago and northern Indiana can be advected over Lake Michigan, leading to poor air quality when brought inland by lake-breeze circulations ( Lyons and Cole 1976 ; Keen and Lyons 1978 ). In recent decades, there have been several investigations of interactions between sea or lake breezes and urban heat islands (UHIs), primarily using numerical modeling techniques. Some of these studies have inferred the effect of urban areas on the sea-breeze circulation by changing the surface

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Jan Hafner and Stanley Q. Kidder

Introduction Howard (1833a–c) was the first to document the temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. This urban–rural temperature contrast was termed the “urban heat island” by Manley (1958) and since then the term has been widely used in the literature. The urban heat island (UHI), however, is more than a curiosity. According to Changnon (1992) , “As of 1991, more than half of all North Americans live and work in anthropogenically generated urban climates

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Brian V. Smoliak, Peter K. Snyder, Tracy E. Twine, Phillip M. Mykleby, and William F. Hertel

1. Introduction The systematic manipulation and replacement of natural environments with built environments in and around cities affect surface climate such that urban areas are warmer than their rural environs. This phenomenon, known as the urban heat island (UHI), appears at the surface and throughout the lower atmosphere, from the canopy layer to the boundary layer ( Rao 1972 ; Oke 1976 ). Evidence suggesting the existence of UHIs in surface air temperature (SAT) was first documented for

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Hiroshi Yoshikado and Makoto Tsuchida

1804 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEORO'LOGY VOLUME35High Levels of Winter Air Pollution under the Influenceof the Urban Heat Island along the Shore of Tokyo Bay HIROSHI YOSHIKADONational Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, !baraki, Japan IVL~KOTO TSUCHIDA*Tsukuba University Graduate School, Tsukuba, lbaraki, Japan(Manuscript received 20 November 1995, in final form 4

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Humberto Silva III and Jay S. Golden

1. Introduction There are many developed models that can be used to evaluate the spatial variability of the urban heat island (UHI), such as the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF; Michalakes et al. 1998 ) and the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5; Alapaty et al. 1995 ). Both of these models are continuously developed and validated ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; White et al. 1999 ). However, they are both

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