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Jean-Luc Moncet, Gennady Uymin, Alan E. Lipton, and Hilary E. Snell

-precision LBRTM version) for selected AIRS channels is provided in the appendix . Similar results have been found in comparing OSS and OPTRAN in application to infrared and microwave sensors with relatively low spectral resolution [specifically, the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSM/I) ( Han et al. 2005 ; Garand et al. 2001 )]. Table 1 includes the computation time for the AIRS channel set

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Haruma Ishida, Takashi Y. Nakjima, Tatsuya Yokota, Nobuyuki Kikuchi, and Hiroshi Watanabe

narrow-band, multichannel passive imager that takes measurements at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The FTS is designed to measure high-resolution spectra of reflected solar radiance in the near-infrared region and thermal emission from the earth’s surface and the atmosphere to derive molecular absorption of radiation, which is related to gas amounts in the atmosphere and their vertical profiles. However, clouds and aerosols, as well as gases in the atmosphere, influence the

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Thomas Pangaud, Nadia Fourrie, Vincent Guidard, Mohamed Dahoui, and Florence Rabier

1. Introduction The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite ( Aumann et al. 2003 ) belongs to a new generation of advanced satellite sounding instruments that provide information about atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles with a spectral resolution far exceeding that of previous sounders such as the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS). The Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) on board the MetOp satellite ( Cayla 2001 ) with a

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Rasmus Lindstrot, Rene Preusker, and Jürgen Fischer

concluded that between 60°N and 60°S, roughly 40% of all ice clouds were classified as cirrus overlapping lower clouds. In a recent study, exploiting the measurements of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ), Mace et al. (2009) found that multilayered clouds were present in about 60% of the profiles recorded above the tropical western Pacific Ocean, equatorial South America, and Africa. Above the tropical ocean, the multilayered cloud systems were

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Xiao-Yong Zhuge, Fan Yu, and Cheng-Wei Zhang

microwave sensors . J. Appl. Meteor. , 40 , 1801 – 1820 . Lethbridge, M. , 1967 : Precipitation probability and satellite radiation data . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 95 , 487 – 490 . Lovejoy, S. , and Austin G. L. , 1979 : The delineation of rain areas from visible and infrared satellite data for GATE and mid-latitudes . Atmos.–Ocean , 17 , 1048 – 1054 . Luque, A. , Gómez I. , and Manso M. , 2006 : Convective rainfall rate multi-channel algorithm for Meteosat-7 and radar derived

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Fan Yu, Xiao-Yong Zhuge, and Cheng-Wei Zhang

determined rainfall areas according to infrared (IR) brightness temperature and visible (VIS) albedo. The half-hour or one-hour rainfall measured at a certain observation station mainly depends on the following two aspects ( Follansbee 1973 ; Griffith et al. 1978 ): 1) the rain rate within this period and 2) the coverage duration of rainfall clouds generating this specific rainfall at this observation station. Obviously, to improve the accuracy of satellite rainfall retrieval, these two problems must be

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John Molinari, Michaela Rosenmayer, David Vollaro, and Sarah D. Ditchek

into the thermodynamics (role of clouds and radiation) and dynamics (inertial instability) within the tropical cyclone outflow layer. In addition, brief case studies provide detail for two specific storms: Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Isabel (2003). These provide insight into the influences of variations in the storm environment on the distribution of turbulence. 2. Radiative forcing in tropical cyclones Figures 2 and 3 have been adapted from Bu et al. (2014) , who evaluated the role of radiative

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Igor Polonsky and D. M. O’Brien

1. Introduction There is strong evidence that measurements of the column-averaged mole fraction of CO 2 (denoted herein by X CO 2 ) would enable the more accurate identification of regional sources and sinks of CO 2 ( Rayner and O’Brien 2001 ; Rayner et al. 2002 ). There also is evidence that measurements of X CO 2 from space are feasible; options thereof include the thermal infrared ( Engelen et al. 2001 ; Engelen and Stephens 2004 ; Engelen et al. 2004 ; Chahine et al. 2008

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B. C. Maddux, S. A. Ackerman, and S. Platnick

1. Introduction The global cloud field is highly variable in both space and time. Assessing when and where clouds occur, and their higher-order properties, is key to understanding the role clouds play in the earth’s radiation budget and hydrological cycle. Only observations from satellite platforms provide the needed global coverage at a temporal resolution high enough for this assessment. Retrieval of cloud properties has been made using a variety of methods and satellite instruments (e

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Galina Wind, Steven Platnick, Michael D. King, Paul A. Hubanks, Michael J. Pavolonis, Andrew K. Heidinger, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

temperatures in various bands. This approach can be applied to historical and current multispectral imager data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) spacecraft and MODIS. Such an approach may also be continued with future measurements from the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that will be flown on the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) platforms. This algorithm is

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